Mao's Rise to Power

diego barros
Mind Map by diego barros, updated more than 1 year ago
diego barros
Created by diego barros almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Mao's Rise to Power, created by diego barros on 03/24/2015.

Resource summary

Mao's Rise to Power
1 Double Ten Revolution
1.1 Mid-1800s had many uprisings and wars
1.1.1 Opium wars (1839-42 and 56-60) (opening of trade ports)
1.1.2 Sino-Japanese War (94-95) (annexation of Korea and Taiwan)
1.1.3 Sino-French War (84-85) (annexation of Indo-china)
1.1.4 Russian annexation of Manchuria
1.2 This undermined support for the Qing Dyansty, and led to extreme peasant poverty (70% of the land controlled by 10% of the peasant pop.)
1.3 The Imperial govt. attempted reform but it was too late. Anger was fuellled by poor harvests, leading to the revolution (10, Oct. 1911)
2 Warlord Era (1916-27)
2.1 Yuan Shikai took over after the Qing, establishing a dictatorship
2.2 CCP founded in 1921, after Yuan's death. (Mao was a founding member)
2.3 Yuan's death heralded the start of the Warlord Era
2.4 Northern Expedition (26-7): Chiang led CCP and GMD forces to defeat the northern warlords. He established control over majority of China
2.5 CCP membership increased to 50,000 by 27
2.6 Chiang feared they would scare middle-class supporters and fered their left-wing policies. He ordered a massacre of most CCP members, soldiers, and trade unionists. (this included left-wing members of the GMD)
2.7 GMD now controlled most of China
3 Nanjing Decade (27-37)
3.1 GMD lost its revolutionary outlook, bcoming corrup and bureaucratic
3.2 Lacked popular support after the Terror, rejecting the peasants and workers
3.3 Failed to introduce a parliamentary govt. going against Sun Yat-sen
3.4 Very little domestic econ. growth, most growth came from foreign-owned factories
3.5 80% of govt spending went to army upkeep, society suffered
3.6 No social reform
3.7 Chiang did not regain outlying territories taken by foreign powers
3.8 didn't wipe out the leaders of the CCP. Although membership was down by 80%, the leaders survived, and Mao founded the Jiangxi Soviet, who grew empowered after the Long march
4 Japanese War (37-45)
4.1 Japan took over entire eastern seaboard (Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing). GMD cut off from traditional power base
4.2 There were more CCP soldiers fighting the Japanese than GMD ones
4.3 GMD mismanaged the economy during the war, printing paper money led to hyper-inflation (6000%)
4.4 GMD lost many of its best troops in the major Japanese offensive, Op. Ochigo
4.5 High conscription rates and requisitioning of food and supplies alienated the peasantry
4.6 GMD officers extremely corrupt, they sold supplies on the black market, so the soldiers starved and used very poor equipment
4.7 Desertion was very high and discipline brutal, soldiers were tied up in their sleep
4.8 GMD hostile to liberals, intellectuals, and students, reducing their support base even further
5 Strengths of the CCP
5.1 CCP won support of the lower classes (more populous) and had 50,000 members by 27, with 2 mil peasants joining the associations
5.2 CCP leadership showe great resilience by surviving the Terror, and establishing the Jiangxi Soviet. The Long March (34-5) provided an inspiring legend to fuel propaganda
5.3 Mao was a strong and inspiring leader, winning over the peasantry to support their cause. He also knew not to interfere with his generals (Lin Biao was very capable)
5.4 Mao was chairman of the Politburo by Jan. 35, and began fueling the leader cult as soon as 43
5.5 CCP adapted Marxism to suit the conditions in China, thereby including the peasantry, and even the bourgeoisie and gentry, increasing the CCP support base
5.6 Between 37 and 45 membership rose from 40,000 to 1.2 mil
5.7 CCP expanded their area of influence as the Japanese drove the GMD south. By 45 they controlled an area with 90 mil people
5.8 Red Army was more disciplined than the GMD forces, and membership rose from 36-900,000 between 36 and 45
6 Civil War (45-49)
6.1 Why the GMD lost
6.1.1 GMD very repressive in the cities, using their secret police to crack down on any demonstration against their rule
6.1.2 Govt attempts to control inflation failed as the new currency collapsed in a matter of months (aug. to nov.)
6.1.3 Chiang committed too many troops to Manchuria, they were over-extended and vulnerable to counter-offensives
6.1.4 Desertion rate was at 70% per unit. Brutal discipline and rampant corruption led soldiers to desert or defect
6.1.5 Many CCP spies within the GMD: Assisstant Chief of Staff was a spy
6.1.6 GMD forces decreased from 4.8 to 1.5 mil between 46 and 49
6.2 Why the CCP won
6.2.1 PLA was able to take over the equipment and supplies left over by the Japanese
6.2.2 CCP had many able generals (Lin Biao, Peng Dehuai) and Mao did not interfere with their strategies
6.2.3 Mass peasant support: fresh supplies and protection for their soldiers
6.2.4 Promises of treating enemy soldiers generously led to many of them defecting
6.2.5 PLA increased from 1.2 to 4 million between 46 and 49
6.2.6 CCP membership rose from 1.2 to 3 million between 45 and 48
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