The Protectorate, 1653-1659

Rosie HJ
Mind Map by Rosie HJ, updated more than 1 year ago
Rosie HJ
Created by Rosie HJ about 5 years ago
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Protectorate
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The Protectorate, 1653-1659
1 Rule by ordinance
1.1 82 ordinances
1.1.1 March 1654- a system of triers set up to examine all clergy before allowing them to preach.
1.1.2 Get rid of opponents in the army, e.g 5th Monarchist, Harrison
1.1.3 To improve tax efficiency
1.1.4 enforced an Oath of Loyalty to the Lord Protector
2 1st Protectorate Parliament
2.1 1st election in 14 years
2.1.1 many opponents of the regime elected, who questioned its legitimacy
2.1.1.1 Refused to confirm Cromwell's ordinances
2.2 September 1654- Cromwell created the 'Four Fundamentals'
2.2.1 The Recognition: MPs had to recognise the first of these 4, that government should be run by an individual and parliament. This forced out 100 opponents to the regime.
2.3 DISSOLVED AFTER 5 LUNAR MONTHS
3 2nd Protectorate Parliament
3.1 100 known republicans/Commonwealthsmen had been excluded and a further 50 stayed away
3.1.1 More cooperative than before.
3.1.2 Reform measures passed to get the poor to work and against indecent fashions among women
3.1.3 ENDS THE RULE OF THE MAJOR-GENERALS AND THE DECIMATION TAX
4 Events
4.1 James Nayler Case
4.1.1 October 1656- rode into Bristol in an attempt to recreate Christ's entry into Jerusalem. Quaker.
4.1.1.1 Sentenced to life imprisonment, to be bored through the tongue, and branded.
4.1.1.1.1 Cromwell wanted to pardon him; this case is an example of the 2nd PP's relucantance to enforce toleration
4.2 Penruddock's Rising
4.2.1 March 1655- A royalist rebellion that was easily put down by the army.
4.2.1.1 These events led Cromwell to think that England had incurred God's wrath and influenced his decision to enforce the rule of the major-generals.
4.2.1.1.1
4.3 Defeat at the hands of the Spanish
4.3.1 Trying to defend the religious rights of English traders in the Caribbean, but the English ships were turned away by the Spanish
5 Rule of the Major-Generals
5.1 1655-7- dissolved at the 2nd PP
5.2 To enforce military rule and Godly Reformation
5.2.1 They had to enforce the decimation tax: 10% on all former royalists- not popular of easy to collect as gentry often looked down upon their general
5.2.2 Christmas celebrations attacked and pubs closed
5.2.3 'suppress all tumults, insurrections, rebellions or other unlawful assemblies'
6 The Humble Petition and Advice
6.1 1657
6.2 Take the title of king and nominate a successor
6.3 New privy council and another house in parliament, nominated by the Lord Protector
6.4 Cromwell accepts all the terms, except the title of king- doesn't want to upset God or the army.
6.4.1 might start another civil war
6.4.2 God has ruled against the King
6.5 £1.3m per year
7 Aims
7.1 Godly Reformation
7.1.1 Lead by example to impose Puritan living AND liberty of concience
7.2 Healing and settling
7.2.1 Heal old wounds/ reconcile divided country
7.2.1.1 Richard Banister- had owed debt to landlord but had donated the money to the Parliamentary cause and then when Parliament had acquired his debt, he received some compensation.
8 Success?
8.1 Major-generals may have enforced some religious reformation. But otherwise not much Godly Reformation
8.1.1 System of Triers and Ejectors improves quality of clergy and schoolteachers
8.2 Some social reform measures
8.2.1
8.3 Fairly stable government
8.3.1 although parliaments often uncooperative
8.3.2 Although Humble Petition and Advice suggests not a popular regime.
9 The Instrument
9.1 Lord Protector: sole control over FP and the military
9.1.1 a few checks and balances
9.1.1.1 ___________________________ ______________________
9.2 Parliament meet every 3 years for at least 5 months
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