understanding social processes

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SOCIOLOGY- THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY UNIT 1 EXAM BOARD:WJEC
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understanding social processes
1 CULTURE
1.1 A shared learnt way of life
1.1.1 Culture MUST be learnt
1.2 forms of behaviour found in all cultures is called CULTURAL UNIVERSALISM
1.3 CULTURAL RELATIVISM- the idea that no culture is superior to another
2 SOCIALISATION
2.1 The process of learning is called soicialisation
2.2 PRIMARY SOCIALISATION- The first form of socialisation usually done in the family within the home, children learn the basic norms and values of society.
2.3 SECONDARY SOCIALISATION- The second form of socialisation carried out by the agencies of socialisation.
3 Differences between cultures are referred to as cultural diversity
4 FERAL CHILD
4.1 a child who has not recieved the correct form of sociolisation hence behaves like an animal.
5 NORMS, MORES AND VALUES ARE LEARNT THROUGH SOCIALISATION. THEY MAKE UP THE CULTURE OF SOCIETY
5.1 MORES
5.1.1 a stronger form of norms.
5.2 VALUES
5.2.1 Beliefs that lie behind social norms. e.g:bus
5.3 NORMS
5.3.1 The unspoken unwritten rules of behaviour in everyday life
6 GENDER
6.1 The social role that goes with someones sex is called GENDER
6.2 FEMINIST ANN OAKLEY SUGGESTS THERE ARE 4 WAYS OF GENDER SOCIALISATION
6.2.1 MANIPULATION- parents encourage behaviour seen as normal for the child's sex e.g: girls-hair
6.2.2 Different activities- encouraged to get involved. boys- freedom/ girls-home
6.2.3 CANALISATION- children channelled by parents towards toys and activities eg; kitchen/cars
6.2.4 Verbal Appelation- good girl naughty boy
6.3 SEX = BIOLGICAL DIFFERENCES
7 SANCTIONS-A reward or punishment for breaking a norm
7.1 FORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL- Sanctions applied by an official situation. such as court
7.2 INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL- Sanctions placed that is not as serious- detentions
8 NATURE VS NURTURE THEORY
8.1 In the Nature Vs Nurture debate, nature refers to natural biological differences where as Nurture refers to difference from culture and socialisation
8.1.1 GENETIC DETERMINISM- genes decide how you behave
8.1.2 socio-biology - theoretical perspective based on genetic determinism
8.1.3 CONCLUSION: Biology can not determine social behavior
9 FUNCTIONALISM- Society is like a human body. NEED each part for survival of whole. Every part of society has a function.- organic analogy
10 MARXISM- Society is divided by class. permanent conflict between classes. Bourgeoisie and proletariat are ruling classes. RULING CLASS EXPLOIT WORKING CLASS. Workers= wage slaves
11 FEMINISM- Society is fundamentally divided between sexes.Men have most power=patriarchy. Feminists are in favour of equal opportunities.
12 THE NEW RIGHT- REACTION AGAINST CHANGE.Favour of traditional values
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