Beginning of Cold War

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Beginning of Cold War
1 War of Words
1.1 1946 - Europe divided: capitalism→west→Churchill communism→East→Stalin
1.2 Both sides viewed each other as opponents as opponents rather than allies
2 Secret Telegrams
2.1 Truman & Stalin→concerned about breakdown of Grand Alliance & threat of new war. →asked for secret reports from embassies to understand how opponents were thinking→sent as telegrams
3 Long Telegram 1946
3.1 secret report from Kennan→Americas ambassador in Moscow
3.2 It reported that:
3.2.1 -Stalin gave speech→destruction of capitalism
3.2.2 -no peace with USSR while it was opposed to capitalism
3.2.3 -USSR→building up military power
3.2.4 -USA→should seek to contain communism
4 Novikov's Telegram 1946
4.1 Novikov→Soviet ambassador→sent telegram to Stalin→it reported:
4.1.1 -America desired to dominate world
4.1.2 -following Roosevelt's death→American government not interested in cooperation with USSR
4.1.3 -American public→being prepared for war with USSR
4.2 Both governments believed in possibility of war. USSR→believed war with America was inevitable. Stalin→'new Hitler'→preparing for war and had to be stopped
5 Verge of Cold War
5.1 Beginning of 1947- Truman→America must stand against communism
5.1.1 Truman Doctrine
5.1.1.1 Truman asked American military to assess strength of USSR's army
5.1.1.2 world had choice between communist tyranny & democratic freedom
5.1.1.3 communism→not allowed to grow/gain territory
5.1.1.4 America→responsibility to fight for liberty where threatened: →send troops to help governments threatened by communists
5.1.1.5
5.1.1.6 suggested America had responsibility to protect world
5.1.1.7 stated clearly that capitalism and communism were in opposition→no further cooperation between East and West due to ideological differences→marked unofficial end of Grand Alliance and beginning of Cold War
5.1.1.8 America wouldn't invade USSR→make every effort to stop spread of communism
5.2 America believed USSR was planning world domination & vice versa
6 Marshall Plan
6.1 containment of communism
6.2 aimed to beat communism through military force
6.3 committed $13billion to rebuild shattered economies of Europe
6.4 many countries were keen to receive Marshall aid→16 countries (including Britain and France) welcomed Marshall aid seeing it as way of rebuilding their economy & defeating communism in their own countries
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