1 To what extent did racial inequality exist in the USA after
the Second World War?
1.1.1 The Jim Crow laws were was on segregation
of white and black people in America between
1876 and 1965
1.1.2 Public schools, Public places,
1.1.3 They made it impossible for Black Americans to vote by: Demanding a
poll tax that Black Americans could not afford to pay. Also, they
created a literacy test that was marked by white people who would
always fail them.
1.2 Little Rock High School, 1957
1.2.1 In 1954, the US Supreme Court had made
segregation in school illegal.
1.2.2 Many states did little in reality to desegregate though. Like
Arkansas, where the state Governor Orval Faubus refused to
let 9 black students attend Little Rock Central
1.2.3 When the 9 students finally got to school, a white
mob angrily began attacking Black Americans and
newspaper reporters on the streets.
1.2.4 The President had to send in 1100 military
paratroopers to escort the 9 black students to
school and protect them.
1.3 Brown versus Topeka Board of Education
1.3.1 Schools in the southern states were segregated by law.
They were deemed to be "separate but equal", there was no
discrimination if black and whites had the same facilities
1.3.2 In 1954 the Supreme Court decided that segregated education could not be
considered to be equal. The NAACP had argued that black children had been
put at a disadvantage by the school system and that they were not being
prepared to live in a mixed race society and would be disadvantaged in
1.3.3 The Supreme Court ordered that segregation in
schools was to be phased out over time, "which all
1.4 Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus
Boycott, 1955 - 1960
1.4.1 In 1955, a black lady named Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat on her seat on
the bus, for a white lady
1.4.2 The bus driver had Rosa arrested for
breaking the segregation laws.
1.4.3 In response, many black people chose to no
longer use the bus companies to get around
(this is called a boycott)
1.4.4 Instead they walked or started to share car
journey (called carpooling)
1.4.5 17,000 black people were involved and it
lasted for a yeard
1.5 The Ku Klux Klan
1.5.1 The Ku Klux Klan had been formed after the
civil war in America in the 1860's by soldiers
from the southern states.
1.5.2 The KKK wanted to make sure that Black
Americans were not considered 'citizens' in
America now that they were no longer slaves.
1.5.3 When the Civil Rights movement started in
the 1960's, the KKK grew as many white
people wanted to challenge the movement.
1.6 Attitudes in the Southern States
1.6.1 There were powerful forces prepared to resist changes to
the status quo. Many white people saw black civil rights as
a threat to their way of life and were prepared to resist
changes in any way that could.
2 How effective were the methods used by members
of the Civil Rights Movement between 1961-1968?
2.1 The Washington March 1963
2.1.1 The most important of the
2.1.2 Black Americans marched on Washington,
important as it is the capital city of the USA,
where the White House (the centre of the
government) is found.
2.1.3 The march was well planned so
that it would not turn to violence
2.1.4 It was where MLK gave his famous 'I have
a dream' speech, where he spoke about
white and blacks living in harmony
2.1.5 This gained the Civil Rights
movement huge attention
2.2 Freedom Marches 1963
2.2.1 Marches by Black Americans to protest against the high rates
of unemployment and poverty.
2.2.2 There were hundreds of demonstrations and
marches across the country.
2.2.3 Many Black Americans were arrested during the
2.3 Black Power protests at the Mexico
2.3.1 During the Mexico Olympics in 1968,
two Black American athletes won
2.3.2 Whilst on the medal podium with the
national anthem playing they protested for
civil rights by doing the 'Black Power' salute
and through their clothing:
2.3.3 They wore no shoes only socks to
represent black poverty.
2.4 The Freedom Rides 1961
2.4.1 In the 1960s the US SUpreme Court had rules that segregation
of buses from one state to another was illegal. This should have
meant the end of segregations:
18.104.22.168 Many bus companies ignored this and still had
segregation - so the law was not being carried out.
2.4.2 13 civil rights activists (both black and white)
decided to travel on a long journey from
Washington to the segregated Southern State. to
2.4.3 The freedom rides led to another regulation
enforcing the desegregation of interstate
buses in 1961.
2.5 The black power move,ment in the
3 How important was Martin Luther King in
the fight Civil Rights in the USA?
3.1 The assassination of Martin Luther King
3.1.1 MLK was assassinated
on 4th April 1968
3.1.2 There were constant threats to MLK and his
family from white Americans who supported
3.2 Race Riots, 1965-1967
3.2.1 From 1965-1967 there were a lot of race riots by Black
Americans who were frustrated by the poor house and high
unemployment they experienced.
3.2.2 In August 1965, riots broke out in the ghetto
of Watts in L.A.
3.2.3 The riots were caused by a believed attack on
a Black American man called Marquette Frye
by the police
3.2.4 The riots were on for 6 days. 34 people were
killed, Many houses and shops were destroyed.
Many building were looted.
3.3 The Civil Rights Act, 1964
3.3.1 President Kennedy decided in 1963 to create a new
civil rights law
3.3.2 Before it could be introduced though, Kennedy was
3.3.3 The new president Lyndon B. Johnson supported the
new act and signed it into law in 1964
3.3.4 The act banned discrimination in: Hotel/ Motel,