Natural Gas

movingguy001
Mind Map by movingguy001, updated more than 1 year ago
movingguy001
Created by movingguy001 almost 5 years ago
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This Mind Map was done by Igbinevbo Emmanuel Ikponmwosa, Msc Oil and Gas Engineering, University of Aberdeen, 51448617. April, 2015
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Natural Gas
1 TYPES
1.1 Wet Gas
1.1.1 Higher Percentage of C>1 and impurities
1.2 Dry Gas
1.2.1 Higher Percentage of methane
2 EXTRACTION
2.1 Gas Wells
2.1.1 Non-Associated Gas
2.2 Oil Wells
2.2.1 Associated Gas
2.2.1.1 Primary Recovery
2.2.1.2 Secondary Recovery
2.2.1.3 Enhanced Recovery
3 COMPOSITION
3.1 Wanted Components
3.1.1 Methane
3.1.2 Ethane
3.1.3 Propane
3.1.4 Butane
3.1.5 Pentane
3.1.6 Hexane
3.2 Unwanted Components
3.2.1 Rare Gases
3.2.2 Hydrogen Sulphide
3.2.3 Nitrogen
3.2.4 Carbon dioxide
3.2.5 Mercaptans
3.2.6 Dust
4 COMBUSTION
4.1 TYPES
4.1.1 Complete Combustion
4.1.1.1 Products are Carbondioxide and Water
4.1.2 Incomplete Combustion
4.1.2.1 Products are C, CO and CHO
4.2 PROPERTIES
4.2.1 Calorific Value
4.2.2 Specific Gravity
4.2.3 Burning Velocity
4.2.3.1 Comparism between Town gas and Natural gas burning velocities
4.3 PROBLEMS
4.3.1 Low Flame Speed Gas
4.3.2 Stability of gas
4.3.3 Light Back gases
5 CATALYSTS USED
5.1 Types
5.1.1 Homogenous Catalyst
5.1.1.1 Catalyst in the same phase with reactant
5.1.2 Heterogenous Catalyst
5.1.2.1 Catalyst in different phase with reactant
5.2 Catalytic Cycle
5.2.1 Surface Diffusion and Reaction
5.2.2 Adsorbed Product
5.2.3 Product Desorption
5.2.4 Molecular Adsorpton
5.2.5 Dissociative Adsorption
5.3 Catalytic Descriptors
5.3.1 Percentage Conversion
5.3.2 Percentage Selectivity
5.3.3 Percentage Yield
5.4 Catalytic Components
5.4.1 Active Species
5.4.2 Support
5.4.3 Solvent System
5.4.4 Promotors/Selective Poison
5.4.4.1 Properties
5.5 Catalyst Decay
5.5.1 Poisoning
5.5.2 Attrition
5.5.3 Sintering
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.2
5.6 Structure
5.6.1 Miller Indices
5.6.2 Bulk Structure
5.6.3 Surface Structure
5.6.3.1 Examples are zeolite, NiO lattice etc
5.7 Properties
5.7.1 Neutralisation of acid sites
5.7.2 Increased Catalytic lifetime
5.7.3 Activity Enhancement
5.7.4 Selective improvement
5.8
6 TREATMENT
6.1 Condensate Separator
6.2 Dehydrator
6.3 Contaminants Removal
6.4 Nitrogen Extraction
6.5 Gas-Oil Separator
6.6 Fractionator
6.7 Demethanizer
6.8
6.9
7 USES
7.1 Domestic
7.1.1 For Heating and Cooking
7.2 Commercial
7.2.1 For Heating, Transport fuels, etc
7.3 Electric Generation
7.4 Industrial
7.4.1 Fischer Tropsch Chemistry
7.4.1.1 Products include Syngas, Olefins, Paraffins, Oxygenates, Aromatics, etc in the presence of catalysts such Nickel, cobalt and iron
7.4.1.1.1
7.4.2 Water-Gas Shift
7.4.2.1 Product here is H2 and CO2 and its carried out in high and low temperature shift using catalysts such as iron oxides, zinc oxides and aluminum oxides etc
7.4.3 Methanol Synthesis
7.4.3.1 Produces methanol and hydrogen or water as products. Catalysts include Copper and Zinc Oxide
7.4.4 Ammonia Synthesis
7.4.4.1 Combines with Steam reforming and ATR to produce N2 which produces NH3 as product. Catalysts used here are magnetite, and zinc oxides
7.4.5 Steam Reforming
7.4.5.1 Product is Syn Gas(H2 and CO) and it is an highly endothermic process with Nickel and alumina as catalyst. Reverse reaction is methanation
7.4.5.1.1
7.4.5.2
7.4.6 Auto Thermal Reforming
7.4.6.1 Uses oxygen, methane and CO2 to produce syn Gas and it is an exothermic process
7.4.6.1.1 Other Uses of Syn Gas is in production of Ammonia, Methanol, Higher Alkanes and Alkenes
7.4.6.2
7.5 Other
8 TRANSPORTATION
8.1 Pipelines
8.1.1 For Transporting Dry Gas and Condensate
8.2 Tankers
8.2.1 For Transporting LNG
9 CHARACTERISTICS
9.1 Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
9.2 Boiling point
9.3 Melting point
9.4 Pure and Non-Purified
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