Factors of partition.

katiedouglass1
Mind Map by katiedouglass1, updated more than 1 year ago
katiedouglass1
Created by katiedouglass1 over 6 years ago
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factors of indian independence

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Factors of partition.
  1. The British
    1. Tactic of divide and rule had the specific aim to emphisise differences
      1. E.g partition of Bengal (1905)
      2. Left quicker lots quicker than what would be reasonable.
        1. Initially intended to leave by August 1948 but ended up leaving by august 1947.
      3. Congress
        1. Acted in a way that gave Jinnah little choice but demand his own country.
          1. After 1937 general election Congress gave muslims 26/1500 seats
            1. causes Jinnah to make Lahore resolution.
          2. Religous differences
            1. caused the communal violence that was so crucial to partition.
              1. The country divided down different religions, the differences between these religions are clearly crucial.
              2. Hindu's believe the cow is sacred but Muslims eat the cow.
                1. Muslims believe all are equal but Hindu's believe in the caste system.
                2. Mountbatten
                  1. Given plenipotentiary powers by Atlee
                    1. determined to leave quickly.
                      1. partition was the quickest plan.
                        1. rumoured to be trying to get back in time for the royal wedding where his daughter was bridesmaid.
                          1. only viceroy for 6 months
                            1. stated aim was to leave by Aug 1948 (already rushed) actually left a year earlier.
                          2. Jinnah and the Muslim League
                            1. Jinnah asked for a separate Muslim state (1940 Lahore resolution).
                              1. If it had never been asked for the likelihood is it would never have happened.
                              2. Withdrawal from the cabinet mission

                                Annotations:

                                • Angry at Congress's reinterpretation of the May statement and the British allowing this- demonstrated British Congress bias.

                                Attachments:

                                1. led to direct action day.
                              3. World War II

                                Annotations:

                                • Had huge effects. Court marshalls and mutinies: many POW from INA- looked weak to release them but made martyrs to execute them. 1946 Bombay mutiny, 20, 000 sailors took over 80 ships, Congress had to be the ones to stop the mutiny. Fear of unrest:              increased largely over the war. Poor morale amongst the army who just want to go home and demobbed soldiers have kept their weapons. Only 50,000 soldiers available and they couldn't be trusted. Food and coal shortages (1943-44 Bengal famine) made strikes more likely.  1946 Indian General election: Congresswon 90% of seats and so believe they should be in power.  Muslim league won 75% of Muslim votes (huge improvement on 1937). Congress formed 8 provincial governements, muslim league formed 2. Where Muslims were in a minority more votes went to Muslim league (liked the idea of a safe state) British politics:                    1945 general elections meant a landslide win for labour who wanted to create the NHS and grant independence. Had a good relationship with Congress Preperation for partition: January 1946 cabinet mission went to try and work out how to proceed. Realised partition was the only option. Economics:                        British investment in India had already been decreasing before the war (1928-9 £83 million invested, 1935-6 £59 million invested) 1931 Inida began setting its own currency, Britain benefits far less from trade.
                                1. Dmaged Britains economy
                                  1. Left Britain with £630 billion of debt
                                2. Communal violence/ unrest.

                                  Attachments:

                                  1. Demobbed soldiers had kept their weapons.

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Soldiers that are trained to use weapons would have probably used them against the British if they were angry.
                                    1. British couldn't trust these soldiers, or those remaining in the army.
                                      1. 1946 Bombay mutiny.
                                        1. 20,000 sailors rebelled and the British were not able to control it so congress had to.
                                    2. 1946 Direct Action day resulted in the Calcutta killings.
                                      1. Point of no return, Hindus and Muslims would never get on.
                                      2. British were struggling to control India
                                        1. 1922 Chauri Chaura.

                                          Annotations:

                                          • 22 policemen were burnt to death.
                                          1. 1921 Moplah rebellion.

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Muslims turned on Hindu's and killed 600 and forcibly converted 2000
                                            1. 1946 Bombay mutiny.
                                              1. 1946 Calcutta killings.
                                            2. economy
                                              1. Britains economy was in a very bad shape after WWII
                                                1. Weren't willing to invest the time and money required to sort out intercommunal differences.
                                                  1. Without this partition was a certainty
                                                    1. Britain needed to leave as quickly as possible, partition was the quickest way.
                                                    2. £630 billion debt
                                                      1. At the end of the war the cost of running the empire had risen to 1.4 billion a year.
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