Chapter 19 Lesson 1: The Role of Medicines (Hannah Miller p.6)

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The role of medicines

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Chapter 19 Lesson 1: The Role of Medicines (Hannah Miller p.6)
  1. Types of Medicines
    1. preventing disease

      Annotations:

      • Vaccines: A preparation that prevents a person from contracting a specific disease Antitoxins: Fight bacteria that produce substances toxic to the body
      1. Fighting Pathogens

        Annotations:

        • Antibiotics: a class of drug that destroy disease-causing microorganisms called bacteria. They kill harmful bacteria in the body or by preventing bacteria from reproducing.
        • Antivirals: Suppress the virus, but don't kill it. Antifungals: Suppress of kill fungus cells, such as athlete's foot and ringworm.
      2. Relieving pain

        Annotations:

        • Analgesics: pain relievers Aspirin relieves pain and reduces fevers Narcotics: Types of medicines that relieve and can be addictive
        1. managing chronic conditions

          Annotations:

          • Allergy medicines: Antihistamines reduce allergy symptoms like sneezing, watery eyes, etc. and block chemicals released by the immune system that cause an allergic response.
          • Body Regulating Medicines: Diabetics use insulin, which regulates the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. Asthma sufferers may take medicines that control symptoms and prevent attacks. Cardiovascular medicines regulate blood pressure, normalize heartbeats, etc.
          • Antidepressant & Antipsychotic Medicines: Regulate brain chemistry, stable moods, helps people with mental illnesses.
          • Cancer Treatment Medicines: Reduces rapid cell growth to help stop the spread of cancer cells. Chemotherapy kills uses chemicals to kill fast-growing cancer cells. Immunotherapy uses the body's immune system to fight cancer cells. 
          1. Taking Medications
            1. Oral medicines

              Annotations:

              • Tablets, capsules, or liquids taken by mouth. Pass from the digestive system into the bloodstream.
              1. topical medicines

                Annotations:

                • Applied to the skin. 
                1. Inhaled Medicines

                  Annotations:

                  • Delivered in a fine mist or powder. (asthma medicines)
                  1. Injected medicines

                    Annotations:

                    • Delivered through a shot and they go directly into the bloodstream.
                  2. Reactions to Medications
                    1. Side effects

                      Annotations:

                      • Reactions to medicine other than the one intended. (drowsiness, or can be as extreme as death).
                      1. Medicine interactions
                        1. Additive interaction

                          Annotations:

                          • medicines work together in a positive way
                          1. Synergistic Effect

                            Annotations:

                            • The interaction of two or more medicines that results in a greater effect than when each medicine is taken alone.
                            1. Antagonistic Effect

                              Annotations:

                              • The effect of one medicine is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine.
                            2. Tolerance and Withdrawal
                              1. Tolerance

                                Annotations:

                                • The body becomes used to the effect of a medicine. Requires more medicine to produce the same effect as before.
                                1. Withdrawal

                                  Annotations:

                                  • A person stops using a medicine on which he or she has become physiologically dependent. Symptoms: nervousness, insomnia, vomiting, severe headaches, chills, and cramps. They gradually ease in time.
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