Napoleon's Military Campaigns (95-08)

diego barros
Mind Map by diego barros, updated more than 1 year ago
diego barros
Created by diego barros over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Napoleon's Military Campaigns (95-08), created by diego barros on 04/30/2015.

Resource summary

Napoleon's Military Campaigns (95-08)
  1. The French Army
    1. Under the French Republic
      1. France already had the best equipped and trained army in Europe
        1. Population = 30 mil, the largest in Europe. France had the necessary resources to fight a continental war
          1. The 'levée en masse' (mass conscription) harnessed the resources needed and ensured a large supply of men
            1. Revolution led to patriotism, the army was determined to defeat enemies of the Rev. and confident in their ability
              1. The subsequent growth of the French Republic enabled more resources to be used from gained territories
              2. Organisation and tactics
                1. Mixed Order Tactics: a mixture of both columns and lines of soldiers to reduce vulnerability and predictability
                  1. Enforced great mobility and fast charges: bayonet barrages quickly followed by cavalry charges to prevent the enemy from regrouping
                    1. Nap reorganised the army into corps of 25-30,000 men, along with special units (Imperial Guard), with him as Commander in Chief
                      1. Corps had to carry supplies for 12-15 mile marches a day, as well as living off the land
                        1. Speed and flexibility meant success. Each corps had a specific role in battle but was adaptable to sudden changes in plans
                          1. No clear battle formation confused the enemy and gave French forces the advantage of unpredictability
                            1. Flanking and rear attacks decimated enemy forces, pursuing fleeing enemies destroyed their morale
                            2. Napoleon's contributions
                              1. Napoleon enforced great mobility in all his armies. Their speed and element of surprise guaranteed success against their old-fashioned enemies
                                1. Nap did not grant particular training to new recruits, arguing that experience and fighting alongside vets would serve them better. He did however, enforce drills on manoeuvres and certain tactics
                                  1. However Napoleon was not an innovator. He was uninterested in new military inventions, introduced no new training methods, he was reluctant to share battle plans with his generals, and made claims of having grand strategies and battles planned years in advance
                                    1. Nonetheless, he did win battles, earning the respect and loyalty of troops. He was a great leader of men, an opportunist with a good military understanding, who knew how to apply specific tactics for specific situations, bringing France great military success
                                  2. War and Conquest (1795-1808)
                                    1. Early Campaigns
                                      1. In France, his success at the Siege of Toulon (93), and the 13 Vendémiaire Revolt (95), raised him up to General and Commander of the Interior at the age of 26
                                        1. The Italian Campaign (96-97): As Supreme Commander, he defeated Austrian forces in Piedmont (April 96) and followed their retreat to defeat them at Lodi (May 96). Continual success against the 1st Coalition showcased his skills, and reaped great rewards for France.
                                          1. The Egyptian Campaign (98-01): Further enhanced his standing within France. The campaign captured Malta and sorely tested the British forces. However, internal problems in France forced Napoleon to turn back and take over as part of the Consulate
                                            1. The early campaigns of his career led Nap to believe that the only way to ensure total military success was by him having both military and political command of France. He was a firm believer in his destiny, likening himself to Caesar, Charlemagne and Alexander
                                            2. 2nd Coalition (98-02)
                                              1. During the Egyptian Campaign, France was also at war with Austria, the Ottomans, and GB. Napoleon sued for peace but was rejected by the Coalition
                                                1. Napoleon then took charge of the French Army, defeating the Austrians at Marengo (Jun 00) and Bavaria (Dec 00). The subsequent Peace of Lunéville (Feb 01) affirmed Nap's position as First Consul, and france gained territories up to the Left Bank of the Rhine, Belgium and Northern Italy
                                                  1. After the series of French victories, GB (who had been at war since 93) accepted the offer of peace, signing the Peace of Amiens (Mar 02), leading to the independence of Portugal and Naples, and the return of Egypt (held by GB) to the Ottomans
                                                  2. 3rd Coalition (05-08)
                                                    1. By 1804 Treaty of Amiens had broken down, and Napoleon made plans to invade GB, holding drills and training manoeuvres on the coastline in order to frighten GB
                                                      1. However, upon learning that Russia and Austria joined GB in a Coalition, with Austria and Russia invading Northern Italy and Bavaria, Napoleon marched to face them
                                                        1. Success at Ulm (Oct 05) destroyed the Austrian forces by half, enabling Napoleon to take Vienna and the surrounding area
                                                          1. Fearing being trapped between the remnants of the Austrian forces and the approaching Russians, Napoleon moved the army to Austerlitz.
                                                            1. Miscommunication and the mobility of the French forced the Coalition forces into falling into Napoleon's trap. A French force of 67,000 defeated 85,000 Coalition forces due to Nap's tactics alone
                                                              1. Austerlitz led to the defeat of the Austrians, who signed the Treaty of Pressburg (Dec 05), removing them of all lands in Italy and Germany, accept the creation of Westphalia and the Confed of the Rhine
                                                                1. Prussia then joined the 3rd Coalition, but were soon defeated in a week-long campaign at Jena (Oct 06). They were forced to pay indemnities, accept the presence of an occupational army, and had to limit the seize of their army
                                                                  1. Nap then marched against the Russians, defeating them in the Battle of Friedland (Jun 07). The Peace of Tisilt was signed, and Russia accepted all French gains as well as the creation of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. The Tsar was awed by Napoleon and decided to ally Russia with France
                                                                2. The French Empire
                                                                  1. Growth of the Empire
                                                                    1. Annexed Territiories
                                                                      1. Northern Italy + Papal States
                                                                        1. Illyrian Provinces (Dalmatia)
                                                                          1. Holland + Hansa Towns
                                                                          2. Satellite States
                                                                            1. Switzerland
                                                                              1. Spain
                                                                                1. Kingdom of Naples + Italian States
                                                                                  1. Kingdom of Westphalia + Confed of the Rhine
                                                                                  2. Allied States
                                                                                    1. Saxony
                                                                                      1. Prussia
                                                                                        1. Austria
                                                                                          1. Russia
                                                                                            1. Sweden
                                                                                              1. Duchy of Warsaw
                                                                                              2. Napoleon claimed to have created the Empire in order to form a Universal Empire like Charlemagne. He wanted to create national states within the Empire, and desired these states to share in the enlightenment, liberty and equality brought by the Revolution; he desired everywhere to end feudalism and regimes similar to the Ancién Regime. Of course most of these claims were in his autobiography, made years after his defeat at Waterloo
                                                                                              3. Control of the Empire
                                                                                                1. Annexed Territories brought under French Law and Govt. divided into départments of France, Code Napoleon implanted, Concordat+ Imperial University expanded to these areas. Taxation + Conscription the same as in France. Feudalism abolished, Church and Noble lands seized and sold by the state
                                                                                                  1. Satellite States: Feudalism abolished, but traditional structures preserved. Satellites had to provide tribute money and their nationals constituted about 1/3 of the Grand Armée. This ruined economy of the Italian States and bankrupted Warsaw
                                                                                                    1. Exceptions: Warsaw was still feudal, and Holland didn't have conscription or the continental system up to 1810. Naples didn't implement the Code Napoleon or the continental system. Spain introduced nothing new. Westphalia did not introduce the Continental System
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