India (Kashmir and the Indian North East)

sophie_pollard
Mind Map by sophie_pollard, updated more than 1 year ago
sophie_pollard
Created by sophie_pollard over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on India (Kashmir and the Indian North East), created by sophie_pollard on 05/10/2015.

Resource summary

India (Kashmir and the Indian North East)
  1. How has India dealt with the situation in Kashmir since 1947?
    1. Discuss the origins of the Kashmir Conflict in South Asia
      1. How has India treated muslim minorities in Kashmir from 1947-20011?
        1. Discuss separatist terrorism in the Indian northeast and Indias response to it.
          1. how has india dealt with the North Eastern states from the 1950s tilld the present day?
            1. Kashmir:
              1. explanations for the rise of conflict applied to Kashmir:
                1. British Colonial policy: policies of divide and rule exaggerated the differences between Hindus and Muslims
                  1. External intervention: Soviet invasion of Pakistan 1979-1989. Americans supporting against the Soviets
                    1. Other explanations: rise of military in Pakistan
                    2. Important to both India and Pakistan for different reasons:
                      1. India: for security and democracy: if Kashmir secedes, could lead to a domino effect and other borderland regions could potentially break away, leaving India vulnerable to external attacks. Also one of the hallmarks of a democracy is protecting minority rights, so if Kashmir secedes, then Indias democracy has failed
                        1. Pakistan: for irredentist reasons, and reasons of cultural identity. Pakistans national identity would not be complete until it incorporates the whole of Kashmir within its national framework. Islamic identity = Ummah = Indian repression in the region heightens this
                        2. Historical background:
                          1. division of India in 1947
                            1. independent princely states given the choice of who to join, Pakistan, or India
                              1. Kashmir- complicated: Muslim population, but hindu rule
                            2. External and internal side of the conflict:
                              1. External- indo-pak hostility and wars of 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999
                                1. Internal: Indian repression in Kashmir
                                2. First Indo Pak War 1947: Partition, need to choose side. Rebellion in Poohch. Pakistan sees this as a window of opportunity to help the rebels and capture Kashmir. Perceived India as weak when it wasnt. Hair Singh asks New Dehli for help. will help if join India - Instrument of Accession is signed, giving Kashmir speacial status. Understanding that there would be a referendum in the future, which never took place. Indian repression in the 60s/70s and 80s, got rid of the PM mad emore like other states, e.g. got rid of own flag, weakened the special status
                                  1. Sheikh Abdullah rebelled during the integration. was arrested. When they realised they couldnt beat, India collaborated. 1980s- National Conference Party wins seats in the election. Protests in Kashmir: rigged election. India responds with violence and reppresion - BSF and CRPF
                                  2. Second War 1965: Pakistan attacks India , sees a window of opportunity when India is defeated by china in 1962. No sign of Kashmirs special status - need to capture now before fully integrated into India. Pakistan sends men to Gujerat to test waters - India respond (because it is a waste land). Perceived by Pakistan as being weak and launched attack
                                    1. Third war: 1971: Only time when India attacks Pakistan: East and West Pakistan are fighting. Up until 1971, India had to fight on two fronts from both East and west Pakistan. If India helped to liberate the East, need only fight Western front. Awami League led by Sheikh Rahmen. fighting against West Pakistan with Indian help. East Pakistanis infiltrating into India and damaging Indian Economy. Cheaper for India to help Awami League. Independent Bangladesh created
                                      1. Fourth war: 1999: 1998 Nuclear tests create tension between India and Pakistan. consequence of non resolution of kashmir conflict. Pakistanis want to gain an advantageous position. line of control: seperates Indian administered Kashmir and Pakistani administered Kashmir. Most of the fighting took place here
                                        1. nature of the conflict: not a war in the sense that conflict is not post-1990 and has historical roots. However, since 1990, violence has escalated and has some features of Mary Kaldors New War thesis.
                                          1. Participation of the Diaspora: Jummu Kashmir Liberation Front, in Birmingham, UK. Supports the Kashmir secessionist movements
                                            1. Identity politics: collective sense of Islamic identity and the Umah
                                              1. Human Rights Abuses: Armed Forces Special Powers Act: undemocratic law, applies to India disputed borderland regions. Has given security forces extraordinary powers to deal with the conflct
                                                1. presence of the paramilitary: BSF and Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
                                                  1. context of corruption and administrative failure. e.g. elections have been periodically rigged and voters harrassed since 1947.
                                                    1. has become increasingly difficult to distinguish between local and transnational actors. E.g. Islamist groups from neighbouring Pakistan and Afghanistan
                                                  2. Indian North East:
                                                    1. Geographically remote and isolated. 'Chickens kneck' = thin piece of land which connects regions to India
                                                      1. peoples feel marginalised
                                                        1. separatist tendancies and secessionist movements. issues: autonomy, independence, migration from bangladesh, impoverished region, political violence from alienation and marginalisation. New Dehli elites have not been active in NE affairs
                                                        2. Seven Sister states: 8 with Sakkim
                                                          1. states are culturally diverse, and there are multiple layers to the conflict. India vs the region, tribes vs. non-tribes, original resident vs those perceived as being outsiders
                                                          2. violence highest in Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. Assam is the dominant state
                                                            1. Mary Kaldor: New War thesis: Application
                                                              1. identity politics- want to protect tribal identities. e.g. Assam complains about Bengali migration undermining Assamese identity
                                                                1. Paramilitary forces: CRPF and Assam Rifles
                                                                  1. Human rights violations: BSF
                                                                    1. context of corruption, criminality and administrative failure all apply to India NE
                                                                    2. External Intervention:
                                                                      1. 1. Secessionist movements: people dont regard themselves as Indian. Indian by force not by choice, India responds with reppression; paramilitary and army are seen as external intervention. no sense of one-ness with India
                                                                        1. 2. External linkages and the bad neighbourhood theory: China and Burma helping insurgents and supplying them with arms etc.
                                                                          1. 3. British Colonial Legacy:
                                                                            1. people in Assam called Ahoms and Migrated from Burma and see themselves as the indegenous people of Assam. Ahoms checked Moghul Muslims expansion throughout the middle ages. 1820s: British East India Company captured Assa. British veiwed the region more favourably once the discovered the native crop, Assam Tea. Many Europeans went about setting up tea plantations in the region. Tea became a British colonial crop like Rice in Burma. Used cheap labour from India proper. saw the areas as underpopulated so forced the migration of Mundas, Sunthals, and Oraons. So many people moved that all different ethnicities living on the edge of civilisation got in conflict with each other due to conflicting values.
                                                                          2. Nagaland:
                                                                            1. different layers of conflict. Assam- used to be large, but to deal with the ethnic tension, many states carved out of it in 1960s, like nagaland.
                                                                              1. strong christian presence; separatist groups use christianity as a political force and reasoning secession
                                                                                1. oldest conflict in the region, most marginalised. fighting for Nagalim, or greater Nagaland. All Naga people together (some live in neighbouring states)
                                                                                  1. seen as a buffer region between India and China
                                                                                    1. 1947: Akbar Hydari Agreement: nagaland would be for the naga people.
                                                                                      1. 1960: Six point agreement: no act of parliament associated with Naga would come into assembly until Naga assembly gave consent
                                                                                        1. 1975: Shillong Accord: end of hostilities between Naga and India. Nagas to embrace the Indian constitution, Political prisoners freed, security operations by India would be stopped.
                                                                                        2. Manipur:
                                                                                          1. forces of seccession.
                                                                                            1. concern over migration from Bangladesh and disenchantment with the Indian Government
                                                                                              1. Manipuri Language did not get recognised until early 1990s, didnt get statehood until the 1970s.
                                                                                                1. In 1953, India gave the Kugaw valley to Burma even though Manipur considered it theirs
                                                                                                  1. however, seats in universities reserved for the marginalised, women were liberated etc.
                                                                                                  2. Assam:
                                                                                                    1. linguistic, religious and racial divides.
                                                                                                      1. oil exploited for central needs
                                                                                                        1. 1980s: deportation of bangladeshis, opened oil refinery, set up educational institutions. however Bodos felt excluded
                                                                                                          1. Insurgent group: United Liberation Front of Assam founded in 1979/80. want to stop oil exploitation. external linkages with rebels from burma
                                                                                                          2. Tripura:
                                                                                                            1. 1947, Tribe made up 51% of the population, 1981 it had dropped to 28% and is decresing
                                                                                                              1. India cannot offer more autonomy because of domino effect and undermining image
                                                                                                            2. Ganguly:
                                                                                                              1. rivalry stems from competing visions of state construction in South Asia. Th e Indian nationalist movement was predominantly secular and had sought to create a civic, demo cratic polity. Th e Pakistani nationalist movement, in contrast, had sought to create a homeland for the Muslims of South Asia.
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