Mind Map by lvabooboo, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lvabooboo almost 6 years ago


Mind Map on FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM, created by lvabooboo on 05/19/2015.

Resource summary

  1. Are we free to choose and does it matter? Most of us think we are totally free to choose between what is right and what is wrong and we make a conscious decision. The freedom to choose is directly related to the freedom not to choose. You can only punish someone for doing wrong if they had the option to choose not to do wrong.
      1. Humans are either pre-programmed or culturally programmed to act in certain ways whilst thinking they have an element of choice.
        1. John B Watson: if the universe is determined by unchanging rules then all human behaviour can be predicted. If human behaviour can be predicted then it can also be controlled and manipulated. In practice, all human behaviour is governed by a mixture of nature and nurture.
        1. ST PAUL: some people are chosen by God to be believers and some are not chosen by God to be believers and therefore do not have then benefits of believing (Romans 8:28-30).
          1. ST AUGUSTIN: the potter has authority over the clay from the same lump to make one vessel for honour and another for contempt.
            1. CONSCIENCE
              1. Consciousness is the inner awareness of self which enables us to experience conscience.
                1. Conscience is the innate sense of right and wrong which people often experience at a gut level.
                  1. Most of us experience conscience through the feeling of guilt or unease. It is the negative form of conscience that we latch onto (used by Freud).
                2. JOHN CALVIN: predestination is the eternal decree of God for he does not create everyone in the same condition, but ordains eternal life for some and eternal damnation for others.
                3. HARD DETERMINISM
                  1. Every choice we make has been pre-determined; predestination without free will.
                    1. VOLTAIRE: pear trees cannot bear bananas. The instincts of a spaniel cannot be the instincts of an ostrich. Everything is planned, connected and limited.
                      1. SPINOZA: men think themselves free on account of this alone; that they are conscious of their actions and ignorant of the causes of them.
                        1. LOCKE: we all think we are free but none of us wake up enough to realise that we are living in a world bounded by principles of which we are unaware.
                        2. Our social conditioning forces us to adopt socially acceptable norms of behaviour and the power of religion tightly controls people's ethical frameworks. School environment and genetic conditioning; we're making survival choices when we act kindly rather than moral choices. Milgram Experiment.
                          1. Clarence Darrow, defence lawyer in the US, successfully defended two teenage murderers on the basis that neither had acted freely but simply out of their social and cultural background.
                          2. SOFT DETERMINISM
                            1. Up to a certain point we are free to choose. Free will and pre-destination are compatible.
                              1. Some aspects of human behaviour are pre-determined while others are not therefore; in practice we each remain responsible for our moral choices.
                                1. SCHOPENHAUER: man can do what he wills, but he cannot will what he wills.
                                2. LIBERTARIANISM
                                  1. We are totally free to choose and free will and pre-destination are not compatible. Humans are free to choose what actions to take but therefore are totally responsible for the consequences of their actions.
                                    1. Where is the concept of justice? If everyone is free to do what they want then potentially every action could be seen as right.
                                    2. ADVANTAGES: it forces individuals to take responsibility for their actions and could potentially force people to think twice before they act badly. Independent of any religious or ethical moral code. Allows for freedom and individuality.
                                      1. DISADVANTAGES: while it may work for an individual, as soon as they are part of a social group there could be potential friction due to their actions affecting others. Libertarianism falls down as soon as you apply it to human society.
                                        1. JEAN PAUL SARTRE: freedom is a goal of our moral action; even if our actual freedom is limited we should demonstrate our freedom by wanting to be more free. It doesn't matter what you choose providing you choose freely because freedom is our goal. Anyone who doesn't choose freely is living a life of absurdity. Pursue freedom no matter what choice you make because otherwise you are condemned to live a dull life.
                                          1. ROBERT KANE: there are five types of freedom open to a human being; self-realisation, rational self control, self-perception, self determination, self-formation.
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