Physiology- Sports supplements

Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

A level PE (A2 PE) Mind Map on Physiology- Sports supplements, created by douglas.white on 05/19/2015.

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Created by douglas.white over 4 years ago
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Physiology- Sports supplements
1 Creatine supplements
1.1 Increases creatine levels in the muscle cells= more energy available
1.2 Improves maximal strength and lean muscle mass
1.3 Used by variety of athletes including sprinters and weightlifters
1.4 Side effects include diarrhoea, muscle cramps, bloating and weight gain
2 Protein supplements
2.1 Useful for athletes who are training heavily
2.2 Muscle growth and repair
3 Herbal remedies
3.1 Claim to reduce body fat, increase energy and body mass and increase hormones
3.2 Can have adverse reactions or even be tested positive to banned substances
4 Bicarbonate of soda
4.1 pH of blood increases= more alkaline, reducing the effects of lactic acid
4.2 Side effects include bloating, diarrhoea and nausea
5 Caffeine
5.1 Mild stimulant
5.2 Reduces perception of muscle fatigue
5.3 Good for endurance performers
5.4 Side effects include dehydration and muscle and abdominal cramps
6.1 Mimics the body's naturally occurring hormone EPO- stimulates RBC production in bone marow
6.2 Used by endurance athletes
6.3 Enhances oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
6.4 Side effects: increases blood viscosity= blood clots and heart failure, also hinders production of natural EPO
7 Anabolic steroids
7.1 Synthetic hormone related to testosterone
7.2 Used by strength and power performers
7.3 Facilitates storage of protein and growth of muscle mass
7.4 Able to train harder and recover quicker
7.5 Side effects include liver damage, heart failure, increased aggression, mood swings and male features developing in females
8 Human growth hormones
8.1 Synthetic hormone that mimics the body's growth hormone that facilitates protein synthesis and increases lean muscle mass
8.2 Improved strength, increased bone density and decrease in body fat (caused by increased metabolic activity)
8.3 Side effects include enlargement of internal organs= high blood pressure, increased risk of some cancers
9 Beta blockers
9.1 Lowers metabolic activity, reduces heart rate and blood pressure, helps to steady nerves and stop trembling
9.2 Used in archery/snooker
9.3 Side effects of low blood pressure and chronic fatigue
10 Water and electrolyte balance
10.1 recommended that performers should drink 150-200ml of water every 20 mins during competition
10.2 Sports drinks are used to maintain blood glucose and replace lost fluids and electrolytes
10.3 Sodium, potassium and chlorine are electrolytes, maintains rate of exchange of nutrients and waste products
10.4 If dehydrated, blood becomes more viscous= heart beats faster.
10.5 Failure to maintain electrolyte balance can lead to fatigue and cramps
10.6 Too much water can lead to hyponatremia- can lead to swelling of the brain

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