Food Tech - functions of food

leahpearson98
Mind Map by leahpearson98, updated more than 1 year ago
leahpearson98
Created by leahpearson98 over 6 years ago
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GCSE Food technology Mind Map on Food Tech - functions of food, created by leahpearson98 on 05/25/2015.

Resource summary

Food Tech - functions of food
  1. Solutions

    Annotations:

    • sols EG: fruit juice, brine, sugar and water syrups do not separate when left to stand
    1. Formed when

      Annotations:

      • liquid dissolved in another liquid (fruit squash in water) solid dissolved in a liquid (sugar in tea)
    2. Suspensions
      1. Formed when

        Annotations:

        • solid particles are added to a liquid but don't dissolve (EG: starch particles don't dissolve)
        1. Mix

          Annotations:

          • If the suspension isn't agitated (mixed) the solid particles fall to the bottom (EG: if a sauce isn't stirred when heated then lumps form)
        2. Gels

          Annotations:

          • Gel is a solid, jelly like substance. most are actually liquids but act as solids due to gelling agents
          1. Gelatinisation

            Annotations:

            • Gels are formed when starch is heated in a liquid and then cooled this is gelatinisation
            1. Gelling agents

              Annotations:

              • EG: flour, cornflour, pectin, gelatine
            2. Smart starches

              Annotations:

              • AKA modified starches Starches altered to change their working properties
              1. Pre-gelatinised

                Annotations:

                • Allows them to thicken instantly EG: dried custard powder/ pot noodles
                1. No synerisis

                  Annotations:

                  • Synerisis is the water produced when starch is reheated This allows the sauce to be reheated without synerisis EG: ready meals
                  1. Tolerance to acid

                    Annotations:

                    • Altered so tha they aren't affected by acidity, can be used to thicken acid foods EG: low calorie salad dressing
                  2. Emulsions
                    1. Immiscible

                      Annotations:

                      • Liquids that cannot be mixed together EG: oil and water when shaken together they form an unstable emulsion and separate when left to stand
                      1. Emulsifier

                        Annotations:

                        • if an emulsifier is used then the mixture remains stable EG: lecithin in egg yolk is an emulsifier - used in mayonnaise to hold oil and vinegar together -helps fat in cakes mix with egg whites
                      2. Foams

                        Annotations:

                        • gas mixed into a liquid giving it a light texture EG: meringues - when you bake them the air expands and the egg whites coagulate to give them a solid structure
                        1. Elasticity

                          Annotations:

                          • Very stretchy
                          1. Gluten

                            Annotations:

                            • gluten has elasticity allows food made from wheat flour to rise (EG: cake/ bread) no other cereal has this property
                            1. How its made

                              Annotations:

                              • Wheat contains two proteins - glutenin and gliadin. when water is added they form gluten
                          2. Plasticity

                            Annotations:

                            • describes how fat changes under pressureEG: rubbing/ spreading You can easily rub in: margarine, butter, lard - which allows for shortening to take place Oil can not be rbbed in easily
                            1. Shortening

                              Annotations:

                              • Fat coats the starch and protein molecules in the flour - this stops liquid coming in contact with flour, so stopes gluten forming. any gluten that does form is in short lengths rather that long stands that are needed for elasticity. shortening gives cakes, biscuits and pastry a crumbly melt-in-the-mouth texture
                              1. Acids in food
                                1. Bacteria in milk

                                  Annotations:

                                  • naturally produce acid by changing lactose into lactic acid this coagulates the protein casein and makes the milk go lumpy and sour   lumps = curds liquid = whey. drained curds are made into cheese this can happen in recipes using acid, to prevent, thicken milk with cornflour before adding the acid
                                  1. Citric acid

                                    Annotations:

                                    • lemon/ lime juice adding to cream or condensed milk coagulates the protein and gives it a thicker consistency which is used in key lime pie etc. adding citric acid can prevent oxidation, EG: add to fruit salad
                                    1. Acetic acid

                                      Annotations:

                                      • vinegar prevents crystallisation in meringues by changing some of the sucrose to glucose and fructose (invert sugar) preserves vegetables by preventing bacterial growth (EG: pickling) gives a sharp flavour (EG: salad dressing)
                                      1. Ascorbic acid

                                        Annotations:

                                        • vitamin c speeds up fermentation in bread making
                                        1. In sauces

                                          Annotations:

                                          • when making sauces acid breaks down the starch granules, making it thicker allow sauce to thicken fully before adding acid
                                        2. Raising Agents
                                          1. Work by

                                            Annotations:

                                            • incorporating gas into the mixture when you heat gases they expand and rise, then escape from the mixture leaving a light and open texture. they can be adding mechanically (EG: sifting/ beating) or in the ingredients (EG: yeast/ bi carbonate of soda)
                                            1. Natural

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Gases - air, steam, carbon dioxide add air mechanically - whisking, sieving, creaming of fat and sugar, beating of batter, rubbing fat into flour or rolling and folding of pastry steam is used in mistures with a high proportion of liquid (EG: yourkshire pudding or choux pastry) it usually has an open and uneven texture co2 can be added biologically in yeast or chemically through bicarbonate of soda
                                              1. Chemical

                                                Annotations:

                                                • produce co2 when heated with a liquid EG: self raising flour (convenient as it already contains RA) bicarbonate of soda - produces co2 and washing soda when heated, washing soda is dark yellow with a soapy taste so is used with stong flavours to disguise soap (gingerbread) bicarb + acid - to prevent the soapy taste ( vinegar or cream of tartar) baking powder - bicarb + acid + starchy filler to keep it fresh
                                                1. biological

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Yeast is a micro organism that gives off co2 in needs warmth (25 - 28`c), liquid, food (sugar, or obtained through flour), and time (mixture is covered and left to rise)
                                                2. Cooking food
                                                  1. why

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • prevent food poisoning improves palatability preservation easier to digest improves the absorption of nutrients less bulky (EG: spinach)
                                                    1. Heat transfer

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • changes food physically and chemically conduction - molecules are heated and vibrate faster convection - as molecules become hotter they rise, and fall when cool (EG: boiling water in pan) Radiation - transfer of energy from a heat source to food, radiation waves travel to food and the centre is then heated by conduction, hot spots can occur so be sure to stir
                                                    2. Cakes
                                                      1. Methods

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • whisking = fatless sponges (swiss roll) rubbing in = scones/ fruit cakes melting = gingerbread/ brownies creaming/ all-in-one = sponges (Victoria sandwich)
                                                        1. Functions
                                                          1. Fat

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • adds flavour extends shelf life traps air when creamed - acts as a raising agent
                                                            1. sugar

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • sweetens adds colour through caramelisation softens structure
                                                              1. eggs

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • trap air acts as an emulsifier in creamed cakes adds colour forms structure through coagulation provides moisture - whichcontverts to steam on heating and acts as a raising agent
                                                                1. flour

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • structure of cake gives colour through dextrinisation of starch bulk ingredient
                                                                2. Aeration

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • incorporating air into the mixture creaming of fat and sugar - all-in-one methods aren't creamed so require extra baking powder sieving of flour whisking eggs and sugar together
                                                                  1. modifications

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • flour flavourings decoration enrobing - icing/ marzipan/ chocolate shape/ size
                                                                  2. Pastry
                                                                    1. functions
                                                                      1. flour

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • bulk ingredient forms structure colour through dextrinisation
                                                                        1. fat

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • shortens gives colour
                                                                          1. water

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • binds ingredients helps form structure creates steam - helps with rising
                                                                            1. salt

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • adds flavour
                                                                            2. Modifications

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • additional flavours shape/ size type of pastry
                                                                              1. Uses

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • ratio of ingredients and how they are combined gives different results of texture, taste and appearance. shortcrust = quiche/ jam tarts choux = profiteroles flaky/rough puff = sausage rolls/ vanilla slices suet = pies/ jam roly poly filo = baklava/ samosas hot water crust = pork pie
                                                                                1. Finish

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • brush with egg or milk to give brown appearance sprinkle with sugar - attractive finish and shows its a sweet product lid = lattice, pinched or forked around edge, decorations can be cut out of lid or made with extra pastry and put on top
                                                                                  1. ready made

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • shortcrust/ flaky/ filo can be frozen or chilled shortcrust can be found in a packet mix advantages = quick, reliable outcome, guaranteed quality disadvantages = more expensive to buy, may contain additives, has to be stored until needed
                                                                                  2. Bread
                                                                                    1. Ingredients

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • strong plain flour = bulk ingredient, forms structure gluten allows dough to stretch, dextrinisation gives colour yeast = makes bread rise salt = flavour and helps development of gluten, water = binds dry ingredients, helps gluten develop and helps yeast ferment
                                                                                      1. Modifications

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • flour add flavourings use wholemeal - increases NSP, taste texture and appearance are altered add cheese - taste, texture and appearance, adds protein and fat content add dried fruit - sweetens bread, increases NSP affects appearance and taste add toppings
                                                                                      2. Sauces

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • Liquids that are thickened they can form part of a dish (cheese sauce in lasagne) can be served with a meal (gravy) used in food products (lemon meringue pie)
                                                                                        1. Function

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • add flavour, moisture and nutritional value
                                                                                          1. Synerisis

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • happens when proteins are over cooked, they continue coagulating and squeeze out fat and water. it is a thin liquid that separates from a sauce to stop this, manufacturers use modified starches
                                                                                            1. thickening sauces

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • gelatinisation of starch (roux) coagulation egg protein (custard) emulsification (mayonnaise) gelatine (glaze on flans) pureeing (fruit coulis)
                                                                                              1. modifications

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • swap whole milk for semi skimmed to tailor for the ever growing market for low fat food add ingredients - parsley, cheese, sugar
                                                                                              2. Modifying recipes

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • Layering food - trifle change toppings - cake/ crumble change finish - add decorations,alter glazings or enrobing change cooking method change preparation methods change basic ingredients add ingredients
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