POWER: Key terms and Theorists

Mind Map by harriet.ward2, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by harriet.ward2 over 6 years ago


A-level English Mind Map on POWER: Key terms and Theorists, created by harriet.ward2 on 05/26/2015.

Resource summary

POWER: Key terms and Theorists
    1. Political Power: Power held by politicians and those working within the law
      1. Personal Power: Power held as a result of an occupation
        1. Social Group Power: Power held from being part of a dominant social group
        2. FAIRCLOUGH
          1. Instrumental Power: maintains and enforces authority
            1. Influential Power: influences and persuades others
              1. Power in Discourse: power expressed through language used
                1. Power behind Discourse: power expressed through the social statuses of the person speaking
                  1. Synthetic Personalisation: the construction of a relationship between producer and receiver, often through second person pronoun, "you"
                    1. Members' Resources: background information that readers use in order to interpret texts
                    2. HOLME AND STUBBE
                      1. Small Talk: talk that is primarily interactional in orientation- geared towards establishing relationships
                        1. Repressive Discourse Strategy: an indirect way of exercising power & control through conversational contraints
                          1. Oppressive Discourse Strategy: linguistic behaviour that is open in its exercising of power and control
                          2. BROWN AND LEVINSON
                            1. GOFFMAN
                              1. Face: a person's self esteem or emotional needs
                              2. Positive Face: the need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated
                                1. Negative Face: the need to have freedom of thought and action, and not feel imposed on
                                  1. Face Threatening Act: a communicative act that threatens someones positive or negative face
                                    1. Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies: redressive strategies that a speaker might use to avoid a FTA
                                    2. HOWARD GILES
                                      1. Accomodation Theory
                                        1. Everyone has a specific way of speaking to a particular social group, we either:
                                          1. Converge: communicate in a similar way to fit in
                                            1. Diverge: communicate in an accentuated way to maximise oneself
                                        2. Episemtic Modality: words expressing degrees of possibility, probability or certainty, eg shall/will
                                          1. Deontic Modality: words expressing degrees of necessity and obligation eg may/must
                                            1. Symmetrical Address Form: speakers who have the same status
                                              1. Asymmetrical Address Form: one speaker if of higher status than the other
                                                1. Also know as Power Asymmetry or Unequal Encounter
                                                2. Ideology: set of belief systems or attitudes
                                                  1. Powerful Participant: the speaker with higher status- they are able to impose a degree of power
                                                    1. Formulation: the rewording of another's contribution by a powerful participant to impose a certain meaning
                                                    2. Less Powerful Participants: those with less status- subject to constraints imposed by powerful participant
                                                      1. Constraints: the ways in which powerful participants block or control contributions of a less powerful one
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