Sleepwalking (SOMNAMBULISM)

ellie_brookes199
Mind Map by ellie_brookes199, updated more than 1 year ago
ellie_brookes199
Created by ellie_brookes199 over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Sleepwalking (SOMNAMBULISM), created by ellie_brookes199 on 06/01/2015.

Resource summary

Sleepwalking (SOMNAMBULISM)
  1. waking and sleeping occur at the same time. Most episodes are short and last from a few seconds to minutes.
    1. GENETIC EXPLANATION
      1. Research has shown a concordance between somnambulism and genetic similarity
        1. continuity for somnambulism - high proportion of adults sleepwalking have history of it as children
          1. BAKWIN - 19 MZ twins and 14 DZ twins. Concordance of 47% for MZ and 7% for DZ. More siblings of MZ somnambulists walked in their sleep compared to what would be expected in general pop.
            1. HUBLIN - 1045 MZ and 1899 DZ twins. Used questionnaires and interviews to assess frequency of sleepwalking through their lives. Greater concordance amongst MZ. Also found continuity for sleepwalking. 89% of males and 85% of females had history as children
              1. Methodological Issues - twin studies. Mz more similar. Not 100% concordance
          2. NEURAL EXPLANATION
            1. Occurs as a result of environmental factors such as consumption of drugs and alcohol, which disrupt neural functioning
              1. The temporal lobes which house the amygdala and hippocampus are involved in: auditory perception, memory, speech, emotional response and visual perception.
                1. temporal lobes more active during sleep in sleep walkers and that GABA levels are reduced in the sufferers brain.
                  1. GABA is normally in low levels in the motor cortex when waking to permit planning, co-ordination and execution of movement. During sleep there is an elevation of GABA to inhibit activity in the motor cortex so we can't move around.
                    1. Sleepwalkers have low levels of GABA in the motor cortex whilst sleeping. Sleepwalking is more common among children, who have an under-developed GABA system (OLIVIERO)
                  2. ATAY & KAREAN - studied 22 somnambulists and found abnormal temporal lobe activity in 12 of them. In 11 of the 12, somnambulism stopped after taking anti-convulsive meds, suggesting caused by abnormal activity in temporal lobes.
                    1. Methodological issues - small samples, not representative of whole population of sleepwalkers. hard to generalise may not all be caused by abnormalities in temporal lobes.
                  3. REDUCTIONIST - other environmental factors: stress, alcohol, sleep deprivation can often induce sleep. Medical conditions like fever, night time asthma and panic disorders are linked with increased sleepwalking.
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