Brittany Jane Revel
Mind Map by Brittany Jane Revel, updated more than 1 year ago
Brittany Jane Revel
Created by Brittany Jane Revel over 6 years ago



Resource summary

  1. This hypothesis suggests that language acquisition occurs when learners receive messages that they can understand, a concept also known as comprehensible input. However, Krashen also suggests that this comprehensible input should be one step beyond the learner’s current language ability
    1. Application: This hypothesis highlights the importance of using the specific Language in the classroom. The goal of any language program is for learners to be able to communicate effectively. It is important to provide as much comprehensible input as possible, especially in situations when learners are not exposed to outside of the classroom.
      1. Jim Cummins: BICS vs. CALP
        1. CALP refers to formal academic learning. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas.
          1. What this looks like in the classroom:This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material.
          2. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) are language skills needed in social situations. It is the day-to-day language needed to interact socially with other people.
            1. What this looks like: on the playground, in the lunch room,on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephone.
            2. Representation:
          3. Noam Chomsky: Universal Grammar
            1. Universal grammar is a theory in linguistics, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. In other words, Chomsky’s theory is that language learning is already facilitated and that our brains have certain structures of language.
              1. What this looks like in the classroom: Even before the age of 5, children can, without having had any formal instruction, consistently produce and interpret sentences that they have never encountered before
                1. ferdinand de saussure
                  1. He maintained that language can only be understood relationally, by looking at the relationships between different parts as a 'synchronic' system
                    1. System Representation
                      1. Classroom: Arbitrary vocal symbols
                        1. Kenji Hakuta
                          1. In the context of bilingual education children become conversationally fluent in English before they develop the ability actually to use English in academic situations. Bilingual programs are commonly criticized for keeping students too long, even after their English is "ade- quate."
            2. Representation:represented as i + 1, in order to allow learners to continue to progress with their language development.
              1. SLA MAJOR THINKERS
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