Introduction to translation

Denito Romero
Mind Map by Denito Romero, updated more than 1 year ago
Denito Romero
Created by Denito Romero over 6 years ago



Resource summary

Introduction to translation
  1. Translation definition
    1. 1. It is the text has been translated
      1. 2. The act of producing the translation otherwise known as translating
        1. The process of translating have two different kinds
          1. Source language
            1. What we want to translated
              1. - Recurso "SL" -
              2. Target language
                1. - Meta "TL" -
                  1. It is the objective to translation
            2. This type correspond to interlingual translation and it is one of the three categories described by "ROMAN JACKOBSON" in "On linguistic aspects of translation"
              1. Intralingual "rewording"
                1. Redaction or interpretation of verbal sings by means of other signs of the SAME LANGUAGE
                2. Interlingual "Translation proper"
                  1. Intepretation of verbal signs by means of some OTHER LANGUAGE
                  2. Intersemiotic "Transmitation"
                    1. Interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sing systems.
                3. The process of translating
                  1. This is the a translation perceived as a problem solving process with the using of source like a SL or TL
                    1. Skills needed in translation
                      1. 1. The person only need "reasonable knowledge" of a foreign language and "few good dictionaries". Because the translating is an "intuitive process" based in "creative capabilities"
                        1. 2. Some person who believe that only the specialist like lawyers or scientis can translated in their own parts
                          1. 3. But we consider that if the specialist do the traductions. They couldn't fail to make a distintion between factual knowledge and procedual knowledge
                            1. Distinguish factual knowledge and procedural knowledge
                              1. Factual knowledge
                                1. Is the knowledge of "special fields or terminology"
                                2. Procedual knowledge
                                  1. It to refers to "some kind of method or procedure" to help the translator in seeing the meaning of the ST and re-expressing that meaning in the TT
                                    1. Direct
                                      1. It's possible with parallel categories. It are used when structural and conceptual elements of SL that can be traspased into TL; with this techniques into of it:
                                        1. Borrowing
                                          1. A word which is taken from a language without translating it
                                            1. Example: Coffe, software...
                                          2. Calque
                                            1. It's a phrase borrowed from another language
                                              1. It's a class of loan where syntax is taken from source language and translated literally
                                                1. Example: White house = "Casa blanca"
                                            2. Literal
                                              1. Translating word by word from SL to TL, respecting the collocations of TL
                                                1. It depends if the meaning doesn't change or depends of the language


                                                  • The grammar could change just a little
                                                  1. Example: No es complicado de entender = It isn't complicated to understand
                                          3. Literal
                                            1. Oblique
                                              1. Is when the direct translation wouldn't work because they're structurally id impossible
                                                1. Also it's using for paraphasing and use the following technique into it:
                                                  1. Transposition
                                                    1. Modulation
                                                      1. Reformulation
                                                        1. Adaptation
                                                          1. Compensation
                                                    2. The translator need the two types of knowledge because just one isn't enough
                                        2. Translation vs. Interpretation
                                          1. Translators
                                            1. They have a attributes like a :
                                              1. Very good knowledge of the language SL (written or spoken)
                                                1. Excellent power of target language
                                                  1. Familiarity with the subject matter
                                                    1. Understanding of the ethymological and idiomatic knowledge of TL and SL
                                                      1. The competent translator is bilingual and bicultural because has a connotations and cultural references (Mario Pei, ----)
                                                    2. Interpreting
                                                      1. It is a facilitation of oral or sign-language
                                                        1. Communication simultaneously between two or many speakers in different languages
                                                      2. The role of translator "skills"
                                                        1. In relation to a text has been compared to that an artist, musician or actor. Who interpretes a work of art.
                                                      3. Types of translation and interpretation
                                                        1. General Translation or interpretation
                                                          1. It isn't require any specialized vocabulary or konowledge
                                                          2. Specialized translation or interpretation
                                                            1. Refers to domains which require at the very least that the person be extremely wett read in the domain
                                                              1. There are types of specialized translation and interpretation
                                                                1. Financial
                                                                  1. Legal
                                                                    1. Literary


                                                                      • - Just translation - Isn't possible interpretation
                                                                      1. Medicale
                                                                        1. Scientific
                                                                          1. Theoretical
                                                                      2. Ever o better is trainning in the field (Collage degree)
                                                                        1. Types of translation
                                                                          1. Machine translation
                                                                            1. Know as automatic translation, without human intervention, using software or online translation
                                                                            2. Machine assisted
                                                                              1. It is done with a machine translator and human working together
                                                                              2. Screen translation
                                                                                1. Generally it's translation of the movies and television programs, including subtittling and dudding
                                                                                2. Sight translation
                                                                                  1. It is a document in the SL is explained orally in the TL (such as a memo)
                                                                                  2. Localization
                                                                                    1. Adaptation of any product to another language, culture
                                                                                  3. Types of interpretation
                                                                                    1. Simultaneous "simul"
                                                                                      1. Ther interpreter listening to a speech ans simultaneously interprets
                                                                                      2. Consecutive "consec"
                                                                                        1. The interpreter takes notes while listening to a speech, then does his or her interpretation during pauses
                                                                                    2. Translation process
                                                                                      1. Comprenhension stage
                                                                                        1. Where the translator decodes the sense of SL into an activity called SEMASIOLOGY
                                                                                          1. The translator establish minimum units with sense
                                                                                        2. Expression stage
                                                                                          1. Where the translator recodes the sense of the text in the TL in an activity called ONOMASIOLOGY
                                                                                            1. The translator must respect the sense of the text in the SL without making the TL sounding strange
                                                                                        3. Translation level techniques
                                                                                          1. Morphosintactic level
                                                                                            1. Borrowing - Loan
                                                                                              1. Calque
                                                                                                1. Literal translation
                                                                                                  1. Transposition
                                                                                                    1. Modulation
                                                                                                      1. Equivalence
                                                                                                        1. Adaptation
                                                                                                        2. Semantic level
                                                                                                          1. Expansion
                                                                                                            1. Reduction
                                                                                                              1. Compensation
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