Milk and Dairy Products

Rebecca Burroughs
Mind Map by Rebecca Burroughs, updated more than 1 year ago
Rebecca Burroughs
Created by Rebecca Burroughs over 6 years ago
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Milk and Dairy products

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Milk and Dairy Products
  1. Milk is the natural food for young mammals. It is also used in the development of a number of products made from milk, known as dairy products, including butter, cheese, cream and yoghurt. Dairy products are important sources of protein, B vitamins (such as riboflavin and B12), and minerals such as calcium, zinc, and magnesium. Vitamin A and small amounts of Vitamin D are found in whole milk products. Milk also contains potassium and phosphorus.
    1. Data from the 2004 National Diet and Nutrition Survey of British adults aged 19-64 years shows that milk and dairy products in the diet provided; 43% of calcium intake, 33% of riboflavin intake, and 35% (men) and 42% (women) of iodine intake.
      1. Milk and dairy products also provide 27% of vitamin A intake, 11% of magnesium intake and 13% of potassium intake.
      2. Milk is a source of high biological value protein (HBV); 3% of the weight of the milk. The main proteins found in milk are called caseinogens, lactalbumin and lactoglobulin.
        1. Milk contains fat, but it depends what type of milk on the amount of fat within it; 1. Whole milk (blue cap) is 3.9% fat. 2. Semi skimmed milk (green cap) is 1.6% fat. 3. Skimmed milk (red cap) is 0.1% fat.
          1. Milk also contains carbohydrate in the form of lactose. This accounts for 5% of the milk.
            1. Whole milk, semi skimmed, skimmed and UHT milk can be used in many ways.
              1. Soups - e.g. cream of mushroom
                1. Sauces - parsley sauce, roux sauce
                  1. Batters - pancakes, yorkshire puddings
                    1. Puddings - rice pudding, bread and butter pudding
                      1. Baked products - bread, scones and cakes
                        1. Hot drinks - added to coffees, teas, lattes, cappucchinos and hot chocolate
                          1. Cold drinks - milkshakes and smoothies
                            1. Glazing - brushing over the surface of foods to be baked will give a smooth shiny finish
                              1. Dried milk powder is very useful because of its keeping qualities. It is also useful for when making bread in a bread maker.
                                1. Soya milk is a very useful alternative to cows mil and can be used by vegetarians, vegans and people with an intolerance to cows milk.
                                  1. Goats milk is nutritionally similar to cows milk and has a very distinctive taste. It can be useful for people with a lactose intolerance.
                                  2. In the UK, cows milk is most commonly consumed, although other types such as ewes and goats milk are also consumed. Most milk undergoes some form of heat processing such as pasteurisation, sterilisation, or ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment. This ensures that any harmful microorganisms are destroyed and also improves keeping qualities.
                                    1. Pasteurised milk - is treated to a temperature of 71.1 degrees celsius for 15 seconds and then quickly cooled to less that 10 degrees C.
                                      1. Sterilised milk - is preheated to 50 degrees C, separated and standardised into whole, semi skimmed and skimmed milk. The milk is then bottled and passed through a steam pressure chamber at temperatures between 110 degrees c and 130 degrees c for 10 to 30 minutes then cooled in a cold water tank.
                                        1. UHT milk - is homogenised and then heated to at least 135 degrees c for one second and then packed into cartons. 'Homogenised' means that the milk is forced through a fine aperture that breaks up the fat globules into an even size so that they remain distributed throughout the milk and do not form a layer of crew on top of the milk. All types of milk are homogenised.
                                          1. Evaporated milk - is concentrated sterilised milk, which is usually cane and has twice the concentration of milk.
                                            1. Condensed milk - is concentrated in the same way as evaporated milk, and sugar is added. It is not sterilised because the milk is preserved by the addition of sugar.
                                              1. Dried milk powder - is produced by the water content of the milk being evaporated off to produce a solid that has 5% water content.
                                                1. Soya milk - is made from soya beans.
                                                  1. Goats milk and ewes milk are obtained from goats and sheep respectively.
                                                  2. From Textbook
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