Molecules to metabolism

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Mind Map by tiasabs , updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by tiasabs about 6 years ago
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Mind Map of Topic 2.1 Molecules to metabolism of IB Biology Chapter 2 Molecular Biology.

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Molecules to metabolism
  1. Molecular Biology
    1. explains living processes in terms of chemical substances used
      1. diverse molecular structure and complex interactions
        1. Nucleic acids - made of DNA and RNA used to make genes
          1. proteins diverse in structure & control chemical reactions of cell
            1. reductionist approach - breaking down into components
              1. emergent properties cannot be studied
              2. Synthesis of Urea
                1. produced by living organisms but can be produced artificially
                  1. nitrogen containing compound with simple molecular structure
                    1. produced when there is excess ammonia
                      1. cycle of reactions with enzymes
                        1. in liver
                          1. through blood stream; filtered through kidney; passes as urine
                            1. ammonia + CO2 --> ammonium carbanate --> urea + water
                              1. 100 million tonnes produced
                                1. mostly used as nitrogen fertiliser
                                2. Urea and the falsification of vitalsim
                                  1. falsified by artificial urea synthesis
                                    1. discovered in urine in 1720s; assumed product of kidneys
                                      1. believed that organic compounds in living organisms could only be produced using 'vital principle'
                                        1. 1829 theory falsified by Friedrich Wohler
                                          1. all did not abandon theory
                                            1. although agreed on chemical and physical forces, some compounds not artificially synthesized yet
                                            2. Carbon compounds
                                              1. carbon can form 4 bonds
                                                1. can make many molecules
                                                  1. forms covalent bonds with other atoms
                                                    1. single bonds
                                                      1. double and 2 singles
                                                      2. produces stable molecules
                                                        1. complex structures
                                                          1. can be linked with other carbon atoms and other elements
                                                          2. Classifying carbon compounds
                                                            1. Carbohydrates
                                                              1. C, 2H, O
                                                                1. characterized by composition
                                                                2. Lipids
                                                                  1. broad class
                                                                    1. water insoluble
                                                                      1. steroids, waxes, fatty acids, triglycerides
                                                                      2. Proteins
                                                                        1. one or more chains of amino acids
                                                                          1. C, H, N, O
                                                                            1. 2 contain sulphur
                                                                            2. Nucleic acids
                                                                              1. chains of subunits; nucleotides
                                                                                1. C, H, N, O, P
                                                                                  1. RNA and DNA
                                                                                2. Metabolism
                                                                                  1. web of enzyme catlayzed reactions
                                                                                    1. sum of all reactions in a living organism
                                                                                      1. series of pathways which transforms molecule; small steps
                                                                                        1. cycles and chain reactions
                                                                                          1. over 1000 processes in simple organisms
                                                                                          2. Anabolism
                                                                                            1. synthesis of complex molecules form simple molecules
                                                                                              1. formation of macromolecules from monomers through condensation
                                                                                                1. anabolic steroids promote body building
                                                                                                  1. require ATP
                                                                                                    1. protein synthesis using ribosomes
                                                                                                      1. DNA synthesis during replication
                                                                                                        1. Photosynthesis
                                                                                                          1. synthesis of complex carbs
                                                                                                          2. Catabolism
                                                                                                            1. breadkown of complex molecules into simple molecules
                                                                                                              1. hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers
                                                                                                                1. release ATP
                                                                                                                  1. Digestion
                                                                                                                    1. Cell respiration
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