Individual Development

Israel Cosman
Mind Map by Israel Cosman, updated more than 1 year ago
Israel Cosman
Created by Israel Cosman over 6 years ago
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This is for me.

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Individual Development
  1. Factors & Influences on Decisions and Outcomes
    1. Agents of Socialization
      1. Education
        1. As children enter the education system, they encounter school-related sources of role expectations. Course selections, and later occupation choices, are influenced by gender role expectations. School subjects themselves are attributed with gender expectations: boys are expected to perform better than girls at math and science, while girls are expected to excel in art and language-based classes. Gender expectations have traditionally existed even within more neutral subjects. In band, some musical instruments are considered more “appropriate” for one gender than another. For example, the flute is often perceived as a “girl’s instrument” while a tuba might be more “suitable” for a boy.
        2. Family
          1. Individuals first begin to acquire their roles based on social expectations as soon as their gender is known. In spite of the fact that most newborns show little behavioural differences related to gender, they are given gender-specific treatment, and attributed with gender specific characteristics.
            1. Parents model gender roles for their children, both consciously and subconsciously. While there is an increasing awareness of issues related to stereotyping and equality, male and female children are still treated differently: sex-typed clothing, toys, games, and types of interactions are all geared to the child’s gender, reinforcing the role expectations.
              1. From an early age, boys and girls are given “appropriate” household chores, training them for specific adult skills and gender-specific roles. Taking out the garbage and mowing the lawn are considered “appropriate” chores for boys, while girls are expected to help in the kitchen. This creates an implied understanding that some types of work are gender specific and part of the male or female role.
              2. Peers
                1. n North America, children separate into gender-specific peer groups, which contain their own norms and values, in middle childhood. -Boys’ groups tend to be more competitive and physical -Girls tend to interact verbally, more cooperatively, and on an emotional level
                  1. According to Erik Erikson’s theory, this period of adolescence solidifies role expectations as a way of establishing a sense of self-identity. Culture and ethnicity also impact individual role development: African-American girls are less likely to be affected by self-esteem issues, but the violence and suicide rates is higher for boys than girls in North America, where there are fewer socially-acceptable options for male self-expression .
                  2. Media
                    1. Popular media typically portrays gender stereotypes and traditional roles that are no longer appropriate in the 21st century. However, these stereotyped messages are still influencing individual role expectations, largely due to the sheer amount of media people are exposed to at all stages of development. In all media, women are more often portrayed in subordinate roles, while men are shown in leadership positions. When men and women are shown in non-traditional roles they are often portrayed as incompetent, for a humourous effect. For social learning theorists, media is a powerful teaching tool.
                  3. Non-Traditional Gender Roles
                    1. Children who are raised with non-traditional gender role expectations benefit in several ways. Non-traditional homes may involve the presence or absence of various parental figures, who may be engaged in atypical roles or occupations.
                  4. Individual Role Expectations & Conflicts
                    1. Roles
                      1. Partner
                        1. Expected to be empathetic, comationate, loyal, and supportive
                        2. Employee
                          1. Expected to be hardworking and benefit their employer
                          2. Friend
                            1. Expected to be supportive and like others
                            2. Student
                              1. Expected to perform well, and listen in class.
                              2. Child
                                1. Expected to do chores, listen, and do as they are told
                              3. Conflicts
                                1. Role conflict can occur when the expectations of an individual in his or her primary group interfere with those of his or her secondary groups.
                                  1. A student may suffer from role conflict when her part-time job at a restaurant requires her to work long, late hours that interfere with her schoolwork and family responsibilities. Primary groups provide a great deal of support, but also pressure to conform. Involvement in secondary groups, such as those related to work, may be necessary or desirable, even when they exclude the role of the primary group. A single mother may need to work extra hours in order to pay the bills, requiring her to spend less time caring for them. A young man, hoping to earn a promotion, may need to spend more time at his office and less time with his little brother.
                                2. Social Science Perspectives
                                  1. Anthropology
                                    1. Anthropology is the study of all human cultures from a holistic approach and how each culture contributes to the make-up of humanity. Essentially, it is the science of people, which includes the study of human beings in relation to origin, classification, distribution, and relationship of races, physical character, and culture.
                                    2. Sociology
                                      1. Sociology studies the actions of members within a specific society. A sociologist examines the way in which people organize themselves within groups, institutions, and associations. Social research can be used to inform policy, or to facilitate in the engineering of social change. Sociology is the definition for a large range of individuals researching a broad variety of topics. An effective way to describe sociology is to say that it encompasses a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensions of society.
                                      2. Psychology
                                        1. Psychology is the study of human behaviour. It seeks to answer the question “why?” Scientifically examining specific actions, responses, and the factors that dictate how an individual reacts under a specific set of conditions, provides insight to how an individual can affect society. The behaviour of an individual has an impact on the greater society that surrounds her.
                                      3. Social Science Theoretical Approach
                                        1. Anthropology
                                          1. Functionalism (Robert K. Merton)
                                            1. Functionalism is a method for understanding how social institutions fill social needs. Every custom or practice in society provides a form of stability for the entire system. This seems like a grand theory but social institutions provide for the physical and psychological needs for its society members. Having established laws, customs, and agreed-upon practices provides a sense of predictability and stability within a society. In order to understand a society, researchers must understand the function of social institutions and their respective contributions to the stability of their society. An anthropologist looks to explain the practices, not judge them on their validity.
                                            2. Structuralism (Claude Levi-Strauss, Mary Douglas)
                                              1. As social beings we like the idea of predictability and familiarity. How do we foster a social idea, and reinforce it in a society to make it a norm? Reinforcement of a norm or a value increases the acceptance of the practice within a given society. The existence of a societal value is explained if it fulfills a function.
                                              2. Cultural Materialism (Carlo Ember, Stephen Sanderson, Marvin Harris)
                                                1. Human existence is a response to the diverse and complex problems that exist in society. That is, human reproductions (procreation) and production (of goods and services) are intertwined with elements in our environment.
                                              3. Sociology
                                                1. Karl Marx (Marxism) - Conflict Theory
                                                  1. The division of social class marks the place for conflict in Marx’s theory. Owning the means of production elevates a person’s class status while all other workers are forced to find a way to make money using their skills. Marx’s Labour Theory of Value states that human productive power will be exploited in order to maximize profits for the bourgeois. Exploitation of the workers’ (the proletariat) skills produces goods valued at more than the workers are being paid. This process reinforces that profit is made by a company, ultimately making the rich richer. This illustrates that money and economics are driving forces in our society. Understanding the enormous influence money has on our society is the key to understanding how any given society is organized.
                                                  2. Talcott Parsons (Structural Functionalism)
                                                    1. Talcott Parsons, a structural functionalist, believed that society will create structures within itself that will assist with its fundamental functioning requirements. That is, our society will work to achieve a homeostasis where equilibrium will be maintained by its interdependent social structures (parts).
                                                    2. Feminism
                                                      1. Socialist Feminists look at the overthrow of the capitalist system of economics and believe that this system is the root of the problem between male and female power struggles.
                                                    3. Psychology
                                                      1. Psychologists explain individual development as a result of how people think, feel, and behave. To psychologists, people’s feelings and emotions are important influences on their growth. Learning theorists, like B.F. Skinner and Albert Bandura, explain behaviour with an emphasis on learning, rather than biological influences. - Rewards and punishments determine which behaviours will be repeated. Developmental and evolutionary psychologists emphasize the importance of heredity on determining physical, emotional, and intellectual characteristics, as well as predispositions towards certain behaviours. However, psychologists also acknowledge the influence of both positive and negative environmental factors, such as nutrition, stress, attachment, and parenting styles. In particular, Diana Baumrind has studied the effect of parenting on children.
                                                    4. Developmental Theories
                                                      1. Maslow
                                                        1. individual development as the process through a hierarchy. He suggested that each person, while unique, shares the same requirements for successful development over a lifetime. His theory is usually shown in a pyramid, with the most basic needs for survival and safety at the bottom and progressing to the more abstract need for fulfillment. People are motivated to strive toward each new level in pursuit of self-actualization.
                                                        2. Erikson
                                                          1. Human behaviour can also be understood through the experiences a person encounters during his development. Behaviours and decisions made later in life may be affected by a person’s ability to successfully navigate psychological dilemmas during the development stages in a person’s life. Erikson believes that at certain stages in an individual’s life there are tasks (milestones) that must be met in order to have a healthy development. Unlike Freud, Erikson believed that a person may pass through a stage and not get “stuck” at a certain level of psychological development.
                                                          2. Mead
                                                            1. Theory of social self, self emerges from social interactions. The self is not there from birth, but develops over time from social experiences and activities.
                                                            2. Freud
                                                              1. Freud described the mind as having three areas: the conscious mind, the pre- conscious mind and the unconscious mind. Each person’s personality is motivated by drives. He labelled these drives the Id, which is part of the unconscious mind and continuously seeks pleasure without considering consequences; the Superego, whose desire is to be socially conscious of all decisions and actions that a person makes; and the Ego, the mediator between the Id and Superego. The constant struggle between the Id and Superego must be kept in balance because if the Id becomes too strong a person will not worry about social responsibilities and will participate in activities with little forethought for the potential dangers or social rules being broken. If the Superego is too strong, a person’s personality becomes too uptight and worried about following social expectations and rules. Significant imbalance, either way, is not healthy for the development of an individual.
                                                                1. Freud views human development as progressing through stages of development where the main conflict deals with an erogenous zone of the body. He theorizes that to progress to the next stage of development it is necessary to properly pass through the current stage. Human development is best understood in terms of changing focuses of sexual desire. These desires are suppressed to the unconscious where they may be preserved. Psychological conflicts arise when the desires want to manifest themselves in overt behaviour(s). Unconscious conflicts are the source of neuroses, which can be treated through therapy and talking sessions.
                                                                2. Cooley
                                                                  1. Looking glass, theory. Stated that a persons social interactions makes ones self grow
                                                                  2. Vygotsky
                                                                    1. Infants are born with the basic abilities for intellectual development, children learn more important learning from social interaction
                                                                  3. Education, Occupation, and Lifestyle Choices
                                                                    1. Education System
                                                                      1. The rules and guidelines within an education institution which help develop an individual in order to survive in the worlds sociery.
                                                                      2. Feminism
                                                                        1. The motion of equality amongst all genders. The goal to create equal opportunities of survival between everyone.
                                                                          1. The motion of equality amongst all genders. The goal to create equal opportunities of survival between everyone.
                                                                          2. Individual Role Expectations
                                                                            1. Nurture
                                                                              1. The development of an individual, due to the influence of society and environmental surroundings
                                                                              2. Nature
                                                                                1. The development of an individual, due to their genetic material and biological characteristics.
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