Internal Functioning of a Computer

Pablo Vega
Mind Map by Pablo Vega, updated more than 1 year ago
Pablo Vega
Created by Pablo Vega almost 6 years ago
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1st Homework

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Internal Functioning of a Computer
  1. Evolution of computer hardware
    1. Parts of the computer have become smaller
    2. Microprocessor (CPU)
      1. Most important Integrated Circuit
        1. Control Unit (CU)
          1. Organizes and controls the data and its flow
          2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
            1. Executes arithmetic operations
            2. Interpretates and carries out the basic instructions it recieves
              1. Instructions for the microprocessor:
                1. Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
                  1. Bigger capacity
                  2. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
                    1. Faster
                  3. Works by clock cycles
                  4. Microprocessor brands
                    1. AMD (American Micro Devices)
                      1. Intel
                        1. Motorola
                          1. VIA Technologies
                            1. Transmeta
                            2. Works being serial or parallel
                              1. Executes orders in a sequence, changing processes in microseconds
                                1. Executes orders simultaneously
                              2. Performance of microprocessors
                                1. Clock Speed
                                  1. Measured in hertz or Mega/Gigahertz
                                    1. Number of cycles (instructions executed) performed in a second
                                    2. Cache Memory (main memory)
                                      1. Between RAM and the processor
                                        1. Provides the fastest acces to data
                                          1. Primary memory (deletes when the computer is shut down)
                                            1. Stores the most frequently requested data
                                              1. First place where the microprocessor looks for info.
                                                1. Up to 3 levels of cache (8kb to 9Mb of memory)
                                                2. Size of the word
                                                  1. Number of bits a microprocessor can handle at the same time
                                                    1. 32 or 64 bits, generally
                                                  2. Compartment of the desktop
                                                    1. Circuit Cards and Storing devices
                                                      1. Power source
                                                        1. "feeds" the computer so that it can work
                                                          1. Transforms alternate current into direct current
                                                          2. Fan (cools down the computer)
                                                            1. Motherboard
                                                              1. Provides space to connect all devices to the computer
                                                                1. Many of those devices can be replaced or repaired
                                                            2. Memory
                                                              1. Random Acces Memory (RAM)
                                                                1. Primary memory (temporary)(ereases when we turn off the computer)
                                                                  1. Fast but small memory (Works in nanoseconds)
                                                                    1. When it cannot store everything, the order passes directly to the Hard Drive, which is bigger but slower
                                                                      1. Up to 16 Gb of capacity
                                                                        1. Bigger RAM = faster computer
                                                                        2. Read Only Memory (ROM)
                                                                          1. Secondary memory (it doesn't erase)
                                                                            1. Greater capacity tan RAM, but slower
                                                                              1. Looks for information via revolutions
                                                                              2. Complementary Metal Oxid Semiconductor (CMOS)
                                                                                1. Reading and writing memory
                                                                                  1. Works with a battery that is charged when the computer is on
                                                                                    1. Registers time and date, along with characteristics of installed hardware
                                                                                    2. Sequence of memory: Ram, ROM
                                                                                      1. Flash Memory
                                                                                        1. Reading and Writing Memory
                                                                                          1. Holds data when computer is off
                                                                                            1. Most expensive one
                                                                                              1. Mainly used in:
                                                                                                1. Cellphones
                                                                                                  1. Digital cameras
                                                                                                    1. Printers
                                                                                                      1. Tablets
                                                                                                  2. Peripheal Devices
                                                                                                    1. Devices such as mouses, keyboards, etc. connected by ports
                                                                                                      1. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
                                                                                                        1. Compatibility with all computers
                                                                                                          1. Easy handling and info. saving
                                                                                                            1. Plug and Play (PnP)
                                                                                                              1. Recognized immediatly
                                                                                                            2. HDMI
                                                                                                              1. Connection to tv's, sengs 64 bits at a time
                                                                                                              2. Flow of data from component to component by cables = BUS
                                                                                                                1. Bus 1
                                                                                                                  1. Connects processor to the memory
                                                                                                                  2. Bus 2
                                                                                                                    1. Connects processor to Peripheal devices
                                                                                                                2. Expansion cards
                                                                                                                  1. They give the computer the ability to control Input, Process and Output
                                                                                                                    1. They fit in expansión slots
                                                                                                                      1. They contain the ports we use to connect external devices like mouses or keyboards
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