MAIN COURSE CONCEPTS

Siempira Rocio
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MAIN COURSE CONCEPTS
  1. PHONETICS The study of linguistic sounds is called Phonetics.
    1. Consonants are often classified by being given a so-called VPM-label. VPM stands for Voicing, Place and Manner: 7 7 - voicing means that the vocal folds are used; if they are not, the sound is voiceless (note that vowels always imply the use of vocal folds). - place of articulation is the place where the air flow will be more or less obstructed. - manner is concerned with the nature of the obstruction.
      1. Voicing: In the examples below the first sound is voiceless, the other is voiced: pie/buy, try/dry, chew/Jew, thigh/thy. This distinction can also be made in between two vowels: rapid/rabid, or at the end of a word: pick/pig, rich/ridge.
        1. Bilabial: Examples are [p], which is voiceless, as in pay or [b] and [m] which are voiced, as in bay, may.
          1. Labiodental: Examples are [f] safe (voiceless) and [v] save (voiced).
            1. Dental Examples are [S] oath (voiceless) and [C] clothe (voiced).
              1. Alveolar: Examples are [ t,s ] too,sue, both voiceless, and [d,z,n,l,r ] do, zoo, nook, look, rook, all voiced. Palatoalveolar. Examples [R,tR] pressure, batch (voiceless) and [Y,dY] pleasure, badge (voiced). Palatal sounds are very similar to palatoalveolar ones, they are just produced further back towards the velum. The only palatal sound in English is [ j] as in yes, yellow, beauty, new and it is voiced. Velar sounds are made by raising the back of the tongue towards the soft palate, called the velum. Examples [k] back, voiceless, and [g, M] both voiced bag, bang. [w] is a velar which is accompanied with lip rounding. Glottal sounds are produced when the air passes through the glottis as it is narrowed: [h] as in high.
          2. PHONOLOGY Phonology is the study of systems of sounds, often the sound system of a particular language.
            1. As phonetics and phonology both deal with sounds, and as English spelling and English pronunciation are two very different things, it is important that you keep in mind that we are not interested in letters here, but in sounds. For instance, English has not 5 or 6 but 20 different vowels, even if these vowels are all written by different combinations of 6 different letters, "a, e, i, o, u, y".
              1. a phonological point of view, it is possible to distinguish between vowels and consonants by testing which sounds may be the nucleus of a syllable, i.e. the part of a syllabe that cannot be left out. If you consider a syllable such as [k@:t] cart, the initial [k] may be left out and we still have a syllable, [@:t] art, the final [t] may be left out and we still have a syllable , [k@:] car. In fact [k] and [t] may both be left out, and the remainder is still a syllable, [@:] are. If however you try to leave out the vowel, then there is no syllable anymore:* [kt].
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