Margaret's mind map

Mind Map by margaret_wang_21, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by margaret_wang_21 about 6 years ago


It's a mind map including behaviourist perspective, cognitive perspective and humanistic perspectie of learning.

Resource summary

Margaret's mind map
  1. Humanistic Perspective
    1. Process Education
      1. idea that a teacher should be a facilitator (rather than instructor) and that the process of learning is more important than the end result
      2. cooperative learning
        1. Jigsaw technique (Johnson & Johnson, 1992)
          1. each student is either given a specific role to accomplish within a group
          2. Advantages
            1. Goals/rewards depend on the performance & contribution of group members.
              1. Requires no major restructuring of school day
                1. Advances the cooperation among students of different abilities, ethnic backgrounds, ages, and gender (improves interpersonal & teamwork skills)
                2. Disadvantages
                  1. Some students waste time talking about non-relevant matters Some members dominate, others are ignored
                3. learning circles
                  1. Students are heterogeneously grouped with the aim of learning from each other and completing tasks together
                  2. open classrooms
                    1. An ‘classroom’ where large groups of mixed-ability and mixed-age children work together in a single, large room with different ‘areas’
                    2. Example
                      1. Summerhill
                      2. Strengths
                        1. Idea that schooling should be focused around the needs of the student (instead of the needs of the school)
                          1. Traditional schools overwhelmingly fail to recognize this and thus, some kids are setup to lose interest/fail/frustrated from the start
                            1. Can be effective for students who do not do well in traditional setting
                            2. Weaknesses
                              1. Issue of feasibility (cost) on large scale and with different students
                                1. Often viewed as too student-centered and detracts from preparing students to deal with the “real world”
                                  1. Criticized for not preparing for the workplace May be too subjective in evaluating what a student learned
                                    1. Many are not trained to teach in such manners Seen as ‘European notion’ where schools often track students instead of opening school for everyone
                                  2. Behaviorist Perspective
                                    1. Behaviorist Perspective Application
                                      1. PROGRAMMED LEARNING (SKINNER, 1958)
                                        1. AIM
                                          1. to shape behavior (learning) into predetermined patterns by strengthening stimulus-response bonds
                                          2. Three Elements
                                            1. (1) it delivers information in small bites ("Frames")
                                              1. (2) it is self-paced by the learner
                                                1. (3) it provides immediate feedback, both positive and negative, to the learner
                                                2. Uses a mechanical device
                                                  1. students were rewarded immediately & individually for correct answers
                                                  2. Two Models
                                                    1. LINEAR MODEL
                                                      1. Student who makes a correct response proceeds to the next frame.
                                                        1. All students work through the same sequence of question
                                                        2. BRANCHED MODEL
                                                          1. If a student responds incorrectly, s/he will either be returned to the original frame, or routed through a subprogram designed to remedy the deficiency indicated by the wrong choice
                                                            1. this process is repeated at each step
                                                              1. branching one allows for the assessing of understanding of the student and allows for the additional learning as needed
                                                            2. Strengths
                                                              1. Helps to break down large amount of info into smaller, more manageable pieces for students to comprehend
                                                                1. Focuses on the topic at hand and attempts to remove other distracters and/or the reinforcement of negative behaviors
                                                                  1. May alleviate issues of student frustration with a fast or slow paced instruction
                                                                    1. Provides reinforcement for all students
                                                                      1. Research has shown that it is often as successful (or more than) as traditional teacher-based learning (Bower, 1981)
                                                                      2. Weaknesses
                                                                        1. Not all subjects can be broken down into small bits of info or taught effectively in this manner
                                                                          1. Does not account for social process of education and mostly eliminates the student-teacher interaction
                                                                            1. Process can be ‘robotic’ and not interesting or motivating
                                                                              1. May focus on clear-cut questions rather than abstract ones
                                                                                1. Does not account for cognitive processes
                                                                                  1. May be inclined for lower-level subjects and/or students
                                                                                    1. Once extrinsic reward is removed, may lose effect
                                                                                  2. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES
                                                                                    1. Desists
                                                                                      1. Timeout
                                                                                        1. Detention
                                                                                          1. Response costs
                                                                                            1. Reprimands
                                                                                              1. Contingency Contract Programs
                                                                                                1. Token reinforcement system
                                                                                                2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                  1. Theory itself fails to accept cognitive influences of learning and social learning
                                                                                                    1. What may work as an effective reward or punishment for one student may not for another
                                                                                                      1. Negative consequences may lead to more negative attitudes (and behavior) to authority figures and school overall
                                                                                                        1. Punishment by itself does not improve behavior as it does not show an appropriate alternative
                                                                                                        2. Strengths
                                                                                                          1. Brings unwanted behavior to the attention of the student(s) and teacher
                                                                                                            1. Hopefully stop the behavior or prevent in the 1st place Points out to others what is acceptable (NOT social learning)
                                                                                                              1. Can be effective when applied properly, sincerely, & fairly
                                                                                                                1. effective
                                                                                                              2. Classical Conditioning (CC)
                                                                                                                1. Key Terms
                                                                                                                  1. Stimulus
                                                                                                                    1. Any change in environment that an organism registers.
                                                                                                                    2. Response
                                                                                                                      1. Any behaviour that the organism emits as a consequence of a stimulus.
                                                                                                                      2. Reflex
                                                                                                                        1. A consistent connection between a stimulus and a response.
                                                                                                                      3. Pavlov's experiment on dogs
                                                                                                                        1. Before Conditioning
                                                                                                                          1. BELL: Neutral Stimulus (NS)
                                                                                                                            1. does not elicit response
                                                                                                                            2. FOOD: Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
                                                                                                                              1. automatic response
                                                                                                                              2. SALIVATION: Unconditioned Response (UCR)
                                                                                                                                1. automatic
                                                                                                                              3. During Conditioning
                                                                                                                                1. Pair bell with the present of food
                                                                                                                                2. After Conditioning
                                                                                                                                  1. BELL: Conditional Stimulus (CS)
                                                                                                                                    1. cause response
                                                                                                                                    2. SALIVATION: Conditional Resonse
                                                                                                                                      1. due to bell
                                                                                                                                  2. Example
                                                                                                                                    1. Little Albert
                                                                                                                                  3. Operant Conditioning (OC)
                                                                                                                                    1. Definition
                                                                                                                                      1. A learning process by which the likelihood of a particular behaviour occurring is determined by the consequences of that behavior.
                                                                                                                                      2. Key Terms
                                                                                                                                        1. Reinforcement
                                                                                                                                          1. Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated
                                                                                                                                          2. Positive Reinforcement
                                                                                                                                            1. using consequences that are pleasant when they happen
                                                                                                                                            2. Negative Reinforcement
                                                                                                                                              1. using consequences that are pleasant when they stop
                                                                                                                                              2. Punishment
                                                                                                                                                1. Anything which has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are unpleasant when happen
                                                                                                                                              3. Experiment
                                                                                                                                                1. Skinner's box
                                                                                                                                                2. Schedules of Reinforcement
                                                                                                                                                  1. Fixed ratio schedules
                                                                                                                                                    1. Variable-ratio schedules
                                                                                                                                                      1. Fixed-interval schedules
                                                                                                                                                        1. Variable-interval schedules
                                                                                                                                                        2. Application Example
                                                                                                                                                          1. Nicolas was warned that he will be dropped out from school if he fights with other students again, so he will be less likely to fight in the future.
                                                                                                                                                      2. Cognitive Perspective
                                                                                                                                                        1. piaget
                                                                                                                                                          1. Stage 1- Sensorimotor- (birth to 2)
                                                                                                                                                            1. Stage 2- Preoperational (2-7)
                                                                                                                                                              1. tage 3- Concrete Operational (7-11)
                                                                                                                                                                1. Stage 4- Formal Operational (11+)
                                                                                                                                                                2. Bruner’s (1960)
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Discovery Learning
                                                                                                                                                                    1. students play an active role in organizing content & information themselves
                                                                                                                                                                  2. Ausubel’s Subsumption Theory (1960)
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Expository teaching
                                                                                                                                                                      1. teacher gives the learners all the info they need in its final form (reception learning takes place)
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Vygotsky’s ZPD
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Zone of Proximal Development
                                                                                                                                                                        1. ‘Range’ of tasks & abilities that a child cannot yet perform independently, but can complete when given appropriate help and support
                                                                                                                                                                      2. Vygotsky’s Scaffolding
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Scaffolding
                                                                                                                                                                          1. : Assistance by a more competent person that helps the child complete the ZPD task that they wouldn’t be able to complete alone
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                          1. it takes mental processes into account of how we play an active role in receiving, organizing, and retaining information
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Has consistently been researched & supported for C&I purposes Research on the cognitive approach has been tested in all formats (lab, field, natural), helping to provide a scientific basis (similar to behaviorism)
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Has been reinforced through emerging learning styles and research into how learning takes place
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Encourages the social process & interaction of learning through culture and language
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. useful applications to education
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. To fully implement suggestions, it may require more class time, planning, and resources than what is available
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. It may not show immediate results of learning taking place
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. It doesn’t account for rewards & punishments that may encourage students
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Behaviorists critique the theory and assert that it cannot be measured objectively because it focuses on unobservable thought processes
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. May not be feasible to implement in many classes (due to class size, testing distractions, allotted time, etc.)
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Overstresses the self-motivation of students
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. The approach is reductionist as it focuses largely on the cognitive aspects of development, and ignores the impact that biological factors may have on development
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