French Revolution

Sebastian Calder6094
Mind Map by Sebastian Calder6094, updated more than 1 year ago
Sebastian Calder6094
Created by Sebastian Calder6094 about 6 years ago
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French revolution sebstian calderon

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French Revolution
  1. Causes
    1. Sociocultural Causes.
      1. -Social conditions. Meaning the inequality among those in the third estate
        1. - Enlightenment ideas shared by the nobles and bourgeoisie, appealing to ideas of freedom and equality.
        2. Economic Causes.
          1. The economy collapsed, hurting the French budget, mainly because between the years of 1787 and 1788 both bad harvests and a slowdown on manufacturing led to food shortages, raising prices on food and increasing unemployment.
            1. -Also the French king and his ministers spent enormous amount of money on wars and court luxuries.
            2. Political Causes.
              1. -The government decided to destine a big part of its budget to help the Americans on their independence against Britain, making a huge negative impact in French economy.
                1. The king Louis XVI refused to change the voting system in the National Assembly to favor the third estate, this caused only more anger amongst the third estate.
              2. Main Chronology of the Revolution
                1. 1. Calling for the States General.
                  1. -The king Louis XVI called meeting of the estates-general at Versailles on May 5 in 1789 to attempt a change in the situation of france . Also on june 20, 1789, the third estate declared a National Assembly in which their respective representatives gathered in a tennis court after being locked-out of their original meeting place, and swore not to stop meeting until they had assembled a new Constitution, this is known as the Tennis Court Oath.
                    1. Key Characters
                      1. -The king Louis XVI
                        1. -Jacques Louis David: a member of the third estate who painted the famous picture illustrating the Tennis Court Oath in 1789.
                    2. 2. Fall/storming of the Bastille.
                      1. -On July 14,1789. 900 Parisians gathered and demolished the Bastille, which was an old fortress used as a prison and armory. Also the kings authority collapsed, meanwhile revolts all over France broke out. Since rumors that troops were being sent out to put down such revolts, peasant rebellious citizens became very concerned, this vast panic in known as the Great Fear.
                        1. Key Characters
                          1. -Jacques Necker, at the time the current finance minister. It is known that he supported the third estate and during this period of time he was dismissed by the king, which caused arousal among Liberal Parisians.
                            1. -Marquise de Sade, a former French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer who was a prisoner of the bastille around this period of time.
                        2. 5. Reign of Terror.
                          1. -The national Convention gave birth to a new group called the Committee of public safety and in 1793 it took over the government. To defend France from domestic threats, the committee adopted policies that became known as the reign of terror. Basically revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute and murder counterrevolutionaries and traitors, over 40,000 people were killed, most of them at the guillotine. Also in 1793, two women founded the Society for Revolutionary Republican Women in Paris. Its members were working-class women who wanted to defend the republic. The convention also pursued a policy of de-Christianization based on the idea of the use of reason over religious ideas. Amongs many other things, this campaign tried to replace the current calendar with a 12 month, 10 days per week calendar.
                            1. Key Characters
                              1. Maximilian Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician. He was the leader of the committee of public safety and an important figure during the Reign of Terror in the French revolution.
                                1. -Pauline Léon was a radical organizer and feminist during the French revolution. She was one of the two women who founded the Society for Revolutionary Republican Women in Paris.
                            2. 3. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
                              1. -On August 26, the national assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, which it proclaimed that all men were equal and free before the law, that appointment to public office should only be based on talent and that no group shall be exempt from paying taxes, also freedom of speech and of the press were declared. Also this declaration was inspired by both the English Bill of Rights and by the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution. They all shared the concepts of equality, liberty and certain rights inspired by the ideas of enlightment.
                                1. Key Characters
                                  1. Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, was a political leader in the early stages of the revolution, he also played a key role writing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
                                    1. Marquis de Lafayette, he was a french aristocrat and military officer who helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen with the assistance of Thomas Jefferson
                                2. 4. End of the monarchy, First French Republic.
                                  1. -In September 1792, the newly elected National Convention began meeting and called to draft a new constitution in which they intended to abolish Monarchy and establish a republic. Also on January 21, the king Louis XVI was killed, which reinforced the idea of destroying the monarchy system and replacing it with democracy.
                                    1. Key Characters
                                      1. -Marie Antoniette, former wife of the king Louis XVI, she was killed by the guillotine a few months later than her husband. It is known that she caused resentment amongst members of the third estate due to her extravagant lifestyle and arrogance.
                                        1. - Joseph-Ignace Guillotine was a French physician who stood for the National Assembly. He proposed on October 10th 1789 the use of the guillotine (named after him) to carry out all death penalties in France as a fair and less painful way of execution.
                                    2. 6. Directory.
                                      1. -In 1795 after the reign of terror ended a new constitution was created. It held that there would be two legislative houses: The lower legislation in charge of drafting laws and the upper legislation or “The council of elders” who approved or dismissed such laws. The executive power was a committee of five called the Directory, it lasted until 1799 and it was filled with corruption. It also faced a lot of opposition from both the radicals and the conservatives. Also in 1799 a very successful and young general named Napoleon Bonaparte decided to act against the directory in a “Coup d´etat” which means to overthrow the current government. Napoleon proved successful and seized control of France.
                                        1. Key Characters
                                          1. Jean Francois-Auguste Moulin was a member of the French directory who strongly opposed the rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte, but his efforts were fruitless eventually concluding in prison for such matters. He later on fought in the Napoleonic wars until his death on 1810.
                                            1. Napoleon Bonaparte Was a French military and political leader who rose to power during the French revolution, he was emperor of the French empire from 1804 to 1814.
                                        2. 7. First French Empire.
                                          1. In paris, Napoleon organized a coup d’état in 1799, overthrowing the directory and arranging a new government called the consulate which was supposed to be a republic but in reality it was not since Napoleon had total control as he has appointed first consul, and in 1804 he named himself Emperor Napoleon he first. Also the new government lead by Napoleon changed many things, such as reestablishing a connection between the government and the catholic church under certain terms and conditions, he also filtered down the French legal systems among many other new implementations. From 1807 to 18012 Napoleon was the leader of the French empire which dominated most of Europe, including Spain, Holland, The Kingdom of Italy, the Swiss Republic, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, the Confederation of the Rhine, Prussia, Austria, Russia and Sweeden.
                                            1. Key Characters
                                              1. Joachim Murat, he was king of Naples from 1808 to 1815 due to the fact that he was the brother-in-law of Napoleon Bonaparte, through marriage to Napoleon's youngest sister Caroline Bonaparte.
                                                1. Napoleon Bonaparte
                                          2. Consequences of the French Revolution.
                                            1. Sociocultural Consequences.
                                              1. A sense of liberalism al across most of Europe, which include legal equality, religious toleration, and economic freedom. All of which favored the creation of a Constitution which included all of these concepts formatted as rights for all men, since liberals claimed that written documents would help guarantee and ensure peoples rights. Also the abolishment of feudalism in which the king gave land to the nobility in exchange for its support. Instead, land was more equally distributed among citizens of the middle or even lower classes.
                                              2. Economical Consequences
                                                1. The British lost commerce with America as a result of the Napoleonic wars, resulting in a lose of profit for Britain. Also the French Revolution gave France at the very end a certain degree of economic stability and progress, which it was a major step forward from its previous era before the revolution. This economic progress primed the country for what latter would be the industrial revolution
                                                2. Political Consequences
                                                  1. The revolution gave birth to Nationalism in a way, which is when people identify themselves as a part of a community, group or nation, defined by several commonly shared elements such as language, customs, etc. Also at the very end of the French empire, the Congress of Vienna was held and as a result many of the European political boundaries of countries were re-shaped including the expansion of Prussia and Austria.
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