1.1 Sometimes defined as ‘interest
groups’ or ‘protective groups’.
1.2 They are defined by a common uniting
feature of the group e.g. financial
interests, social groups or other
common interest e.g. a disease.
2 Promotional groups
2.1 Sometimes referred to as
‘issue groups’ or ‘cause
2.2 Defined by commonly-held beliefs or
causes. The uniting feature may take
many forms e.g. wildlife, child welfare.
2.3 These groups tend to focus on
interests that affect the whole
community not just a section as with
the previous group.
3 Insider groups
3.1 This definition was created by Wyn Grant, University of
Warwick, and considers pressure groups from the
perspective of their relationship with the political
establishment, the government and civil service.
3.2 This definition helps to explain how pressure
groups behave and how successful they are.
3.3 Insider pressure groups have:
3.3.1 A close and established
working relationship with
government which give the
group a type of legitimacy and
is seen to be an advantage.
3.3.2 Close relationships with a
government department and/or
ministers and are regularly
consulted. For example, early
development and drafting of
legislation. Such groups are
called ‘core insiders’ because of
their special status.
3.3.3 - Permanent representatives
on permanent policy-advising
3.3.4 Links (sometimes) with a
political party e.g. unions have
links with the Labour Party
4 Outsider groups
4.1 In contrast, these groups
have not established links
4.2 They are outside of the
decision-making framework of
government and not consulted.
4.3 They are less likely to have their views
taken into account and this makes it more
difficult for them to achieve success.
4.4 Why are outsiders ‘outsiders’?
4.4.1 They are not established enough.
4.4.2 They prefer outsider status as
then they are not accountable for
4.4.3 Outsiders have greater
freedom to act as they wish,
including illegal actions.