Gatrointestinal tract and Digestion

Andrea Díaz5176
Mind Map by Andrea Díaz5176, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrea Díaz5176
Created by Andrea Díaz5176 over 6 years ago


Conceptual map about about the digestive system and it's organs

Resource summary

Gatrointestinal tract and Digestion
  1. Can be divided in
    1. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
      1. Organs and Function
        1. Mouth: The cheeks, hard and soft palates, lips and tongue form the mouth. Saliva is found and secreted by Salivary glands. Through masticaction, food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a soft flexible mass called a bolus
          1. Pharynx: funnel-shaped tube that extends from the internal nares to the esophagus posteriorly and to the larynx anteriorly, and it has both respiratory and digestive functions.
            1. Esophagus: Collapsible, muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Deglutation or swallowing moves the bolus from the mouth to the stomach
              1. Stomach: Connects the esophagus to the duodenum. Chemical digestion consists mostly of the conversion of proteins into peptides by enzyme pepsin
                1. Can cause
                  1. Gastritis: Inflammation, irritation, or erosion of the lining of the stomach. It can occur suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic). Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to excess alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs.
                    1. Caused by : Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori). Bacteria that live in the lining of the stomach; without treatment, the infection can lead to ulcers (painful sores), and in some people, stomach cancer. Pernicious anemia. A form of anemia (loss of red blood cells or lack of hemoglobin) that occurs when the stomach lacks a substance needed to absorb and digest vitamin B12. Bile reflux. A backflow of bile into the stomach from the bile tract (that connects the liver to the gallbladder). Infections caused by bacteria or viruses.
                      1. Symptoms: Vary among individuals, and in many people there are no symptoms. However, the most common symptoms include: nausea, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, a burning sensation in the stomach between meals or at night, hiccups, loss of appetite, vomiting blood, and black stools.
                  2. Feces: Consist of water, inorganic salts, epithelial cells, bacteria, and undigested foods. The elimination of feces from the rectum is called defecation.
                    1. Small intestine: Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ilocecal valve. It is divided into a duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Its glands secrete fluid and mucus, and the circular folds, villi, and microvilli of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption.
                      1. Large intestine: extends from the ileocecal sphincter to the anus. The mucosa contains many goblet cells, and the muscularis consist of teniae coli and haustra. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial action. Substances are further broken down, and some vitamins are synthesized. The large intestine absorbs water, ions, and vitamins.
                    2. Accesory Digestive Organs
                      1. Pancreas: Large elongated and flattened organ located inferior and posterior to the stomach. It has both an endocrine and an exocrine function. As an endocrine gland, it secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate the blood glucose levels. As an exocrine gland it secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods
                        1. Liver: Located to the right of the stomach, inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the small intestine. The liver has many different functions in the body, but the main function of the liver in digestion is the production of bile and its secretion into the small intestine.
                          1. Gallbladder: Small, pear shaped organ located just posterior to the liver. It is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion of subsequent meals
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