SUPERIOR AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES

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SUPERIOR AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES
1 Tolita
1.1 In this region we find the island of The Tolita the reason of the culture´s name. In the past, on their mountains they constructed temples of rectangular form by sloping ceilings and accesses by steps that were used both for the burial and for the housing of important prominent figures.
1.1.1 Their economy was based in high fields, of maize, gourd, chili, bean and yucca, but also of the hunt for peccaries, jaguars, deer, armadillos and zarigüeyas and to the compilation of snails, tortoises, iguanas, fish and shell in the swamp.
1.2 La Tolita was a pre-Columbian culture that spread for the coastal region of Colombia and Ecuador. The archaeological evidence of this culture have been dated about 600 B.C., whereas in Tumaco the most ancient dates correspond to 300 to.
2 Napo
2.1 This culture settled in the Napo´s riverside , in the Amazon region, Ecuador, from 500 A.C and 1500 A.C. They used to be caled Omaguas..
2.2 The Omaguas painted their ceramics with colors, and worked with clay, where they represented animal figures that they worshiped like jaguar, harpy eagle and anaconda. The Shamanes were the espiritual leader and they used hallucinogenic plants for rituals.
3 Jama Coaque
3.1 Between 350 B.C. and 1530 A.C., Jama-Coaque culture lived on the Ecuadorian coast from the end of Cape San Francisco up to Caráquez's Bay, principally in the valleys of Jama and Coaque.
3.2 They lived indispersed settlements along the valleys of the rivers and constructed urban centers characterized bysquares, temples and public buildings.
3.2.1 Their diet depended of a varied quantity of products they cultivated such as maize, beans, yucca, cotton and the gourd, in the hillsides of the hills and in ridges or high fields. They complemented this activity with the fishing and the hunt for animals like armadillo, jaguar, tortoise and zarigüeya.
4 Guangala
4.1 The Guangala lived in the peninsula of Santa Elena, between 200 B.C. and 800 A.C. Where farmers grew maize and diverse "cucurbitáceas", as the zapallo and the gourd.
4.1.1 They also complemented their diet with the fishing crustacean as shrimp and crab of deep waters, the compilation of seafood in the swamps and the hunt for animals like deer, armadillos, tortoises and diverse types of monkeys.
4.2 They worked the metal using technologies as hammering, embossing, smelting and welding the production of fishhooks of copper, needles and narigueras.
5 Bahia
5.1 The Bahía culture lived between 450 B.C. and 700 A.C. on the Coast of Ecuador and they extended from Caráquez's Bay towards the south.
5.2 In the middle of a predominantly wooded landscape, with dry seasons during some months of the year, they practised the agriculture and the fishing as means of subsistence.
5.2.1 The Bahías were big navigators. using small boats with candle to communicate with neighboring populations as Guangala and The Tolita, with whom they shared some technological similarities.
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