1.2 A government department
after an election has been won
1.3 The influence of pressure groups
1.4 The influence of experts within their field
2 The White Paper
2.1 Sets out details of a future
policy on a particular subject
2.2 Basis for a Bill to be
put before Parliament
2.3 Allows for opportunity for government to gather
feedback before it is FORMALLY presented
3 The Green Paper
3.1 Consultation document
produced by the government
3.2 When considering a new law, this
acts as a discussion document
3.3 Allows those within and outside of Parliament to
contribute to discussion and provide feedback
4 A Public Bill
4.1 Public Bills change the law as it applies to the
general population (e.g. change to national
speed limit) and are the most common type of
Bill introduced in Parliament. Government
ministers propose the majority of Public Bills.
4.2 Introduced by either House
of Commons or Lords
4.3 They are largely financial, or involve the public's
money - like new taxes or public spending - are
always introduced in the Commons.
5 A Private Bill
5.1 Usually promoted by organisations, like local
authorities or private companies, to give themselves
powers beyond, or in conflict with, the general law.
5.2 Private Bills only change the law as it
applies to specific individuals or
organisations, rather than the general public.
5.3 Bills can start in either House. The
formal stages of Private Bills are
broadly the same as Public Bills.
5.4 Parliament requires that Private Bills are publicised
through newspaper adverts, official gazettes of local
areas, and in writing to all interested parties. People
directly affected by a Private Bill - for example, residents
near a proposed site for a new cemetery - should also
5.5 Any group or individual directly affected by a Bill's
proposals can object to it through petitions, examined
and considered by committees of MPs and of Lords.