X-Rays in Medicine

jadepalmer98
Mind Map by jadepalmer98, updated more than 1 year ago
jadepalmer98
Created by jadepalmer98 over 6 years ago
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GCSE Physics Mind Map on X-Rays in Medicine, created by jadepalmer98 on 11/17/2013.
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X-Rays in Medicine
1 X-Ray images are used in hospitals for medical diagnosis
1.1 X-rays are high frequency, short wavelength electromagnetic waves - wavelength roughly the same diameter as an atom
1.2 Transmitted by healthy tissue, absorbed by denser materials like bones and metal
1.3 Affect photographic film in the same way as light - can be used to take photographs
1.4 X-ray photographs can be used to diagnose many medical conditions - bone fractures, dental problems
1.5 Can be formed electronically using charge-coupled devices (CCDs)
1.5.1 CCDs are silicon chips about the size of a postage stamp, divided into a grid of millions of identical pixels
1.5.1.1 CCDs detect x-rays and produce electronic signals - used to form high resolution images
1.5.1.1.1 Same technology as digital cameras
2 CT Scans use x-rays
2.1 Computerised Axial Tomography
2.1.1 Use x-rays to produce high resolution images of soft and hard tissue
2.1.1.1 Patient put in cylindrical scanner - x-ray beam fired through the body from an x-ray tube and picked up by detectors on the opposite side
2.1.1.1.1 Tube and detectors are rotated during the scan - computer interprets the signals to form an image of the 2D slice through the body
2.1.1.1.1.1 Multiple 2D scans can be put together to make a 3D image of the inside of the body
3 X-rays can be used to treat cancer
3.1 X-rays can cause ionisation - high doses will kill living cells
3.1.1 Therefore used to stop cancer
3.1.1.1 Have to be carefully focussed and at right dosage to kill the cancer cells without damaging too many normal cells
3.2 To treat cancer
3.2.1 1 - X-rays focused on the tumour using a wide beam
3.2.2 2 - Beam rotated round the patient with the tumour at the centre
3.2.3 3 - This minimises exposure of normal cells to radiation - reduces chance of damaging the rest of the body
4 Radiographers take precautions to minimise radiation dose
4.1 Prolonged exposure can be dangerous for your health
4.1.1 1 - Radiographers who work with x-ray machines or CT scanners need to take precautions to minimise their x-ray dose
4.1.2 2 - They wear lead aprons, stand behind a lead screen or leave the room while scans are being done
4.1.3 3 - Lead is used to shield areas of the patients body that aren't being scanned, and exposure time to the x-rays is always kept to an absolute minimum
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