Changes the nature of the food.
Coils of amino acids uncoil.
Red, raw steak -(denaturation)-> Brown Steak -(coagulation)-> cooked, starts losing liquid and becoming rubbery.
Coagulation is defined as the transformation of proteins from a liquid state to a solid form. Once proteins are coagulated, they cannot be returned to their liquid state. Coagulation begins around 100°F (38°C), and coagulation is complete between 160°F (71°C) and 180°F (82°C).
Liquid leaks from the food.
When starch and liquid are placed on heat, the starch will break down, H2O will slowly enter the starch and enlarge the (starch) molecules.
Types of starches:
- Corn Starch
- Arrowroot Flour
- Custard Flour
- Wheat Flour
- Rice Flour
Factors which affect it:
- Temperature used
- H2O to starch ratio
- Stirring power and how often
- Other ingrediants
The process of setting food with gelatin.
3.3 Browning Reactions
- Involves sugar.
- Must use low heat as sugar retains heat really well.
- Sugar molecules disintegrate at 170 degrees.
- Boiling Sugar and Water.
- Takes place in air and at the bottom of the saucepan.List of Sugars and their Caramelisation-ability- Fructose Readily- Sucrose Readily- Pentose Well- Dectrose Very hard too
- Affects starch when in dry conditions.
- Starch molecules applied to dry heat --> break down into smaller ones called dextrins.
- Dextrins have a golden brown colour and a sweetish flavour.
3.3.3 Enzymatic Browning
- Occurs is fruits or vegetables have been cut or bruised.
- Natural enzymes come in and decompose substances into compounds this results in a dark colour.
- Cooking and/or lack of air destroys enzymes.
The incorporation of air into food products.
- Rubbing in fat
- Whisking and beating
- Rolling and folding
- Creaming of fat and sugar
- Addition of liquids
- Can just put in baking powder or bicarbonate of soda
Done by using yeast, which need sugar, warmth and moisture to survive.
Emulsion is the product of two items which normally would not be able to combine; but are combined due to an emulsifier.