Chloe Fairbrother
Mind Map by Chloe Fairbrother, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Fairbrother
Created by Chloe Fairbrother about 6 years ago


AS - Level History - Russia Mind Map on ALEXANDER II REFORMS: EDUCATION (1863 - 1864), created by Chloe Fairbrother on 10/11/2015.

Resource summary

  1. WHY?
    1. Alexander II recognised that a MODERN STATE required a MORE EDUCATED population!
      1. - Higher education tended to foster an indepenent spirit and critical mind; many students became more active in society, causing challenging problems for the regime.
        1. - These reforms had resulted in many people QUESTIONING the POLITICAL AUTHORITY of the regime!
          1. - 'MUTUAL AID' GROUPS were formed...
            1. 'STUDY GROUPS' met to discuss RADICAL IDEAS and the INJUSTICES of the Tsarist regime!
              1. Communal kitchens and libraries.
          2. Increased need for BASIC literacy and numeracy among private smallholding peasants.
          3. The 'Zemstva'
            1. Responsibility of CONTROLLING SCHOOLS was taken over from the Catholic Church.
              1. FUNDING and CONTROL of education.
              2. New PRIMARY SCHOOLS were built...
                1. Open to ALL classes and BOTH sexes.
                  1. Numbers INCREASED from 8,000 in 1856, to 23,000 in 1880.
                    1. From 400,000 to 1 MILLION pupils in attendance.
                      1. CURRICULUM was still restricted!
                        1. The aim of 'strengthening religious and moral notions and spreading basic knowledge."
                        2. - A more LITERATE PEASANT POPULATION took on new aspirations; challenged the government in later years!
                        3. SECONDARY SCHOOLS
                          1. CURRICULUM was EXTENDED to accomodate a wider range of subjects and a 'modern' education.
                            1. Could focus on 'CLASSIC' subjects (Greek and Latin)...
                              1. ... or more 'MODERN' subjects (the sciences and mathematics).
                              2. Open to ALL classes and BOTH sexes.
                                1. In the 1860s, the NUMBERS of schools DOUBLED.
                                2. UNIVERSITIES
                                  1. Numbers grew from 3,000 to 10,000 by the 1870s.
                                    1. Granted much more freedom and control over their leadership...
                                      1. Selected their own PROFESSORS.
                                        1. 50% left their posts between 1854 to 1862.
                                          1. ENLIGHTENED, LIBERAL-THINKING professors were employed!
                                            1. e.g. Nicholai Pirogov (Famous doctor and educational theorist).
                                          2. Designed COURSES.
                                            1. Student ADMISSIONS and DISCIPLINE.
                                              1. Governed themselves now.
                                              2. - WOMEN could attend COURSES; but NOT obtain a DEGREE!
                                                1. + Students in attendance were now from wider SOCIAL GROUPS!
                                                  1. - Many students relied on STATE FINANCIAL AID; poor and malnourished.
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