Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, PET, fMRI) in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behavior.

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Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, PET, fMRI) in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behavior.
1 fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
1.1 The fMRI portrays brain activity indicating the active parts of the brain which influence behavior.
1.2 A three dimensional projected image of the brain operated through magnetic fields and radio waves.
1.3 Biological Factors & behavior
1.3.1 A study conducted by Maguire et al. in the year 2000 utilizes MRI scans to investigate the relationships between biological factors and behaviour
1.3.1.1 The aim was to investigate whether or not the hippocampus plays a role in human spatial memory
1.3.1.1.1 The target population were London taxi drivers with a two-year training course and healthy males who did not drive taxis.
1.3.1.1.1.1 The procedure was to scan the structure of their hippocampi of both the taxi drivers and the healthy men.
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 As a result taxi drivers left and right hippocampi had a larger volume compared to the non-taxi drivers. Some parts of the hippocampi were smaller in the taxi drivers.
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Maguire concluded that there was probably a redistribution of grey matter in the hippocampi of taxi drivers due to the regular use of the spatial memory skills required to remember roads; the neurons are stronger in areas of the brain which are used most.
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Biological Factor linked back to brain areas, such as hippocampi. Behavior linked back to memory.
2 CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography)
2.1 Special X-ray tests that produce cross-sectional images of the brain using X-rays and a computer.
3 PET (Positron Emission Topography
3.1 Illustrates the level of glucose metabolism in the brain, the higher the glucose level the higher rate of brain activity.
3.2 A visual colored display of brain activity where radioactive tracers are absorbed.
3.3 The red indicates the area with most brain activity while the blue areas indicate the least brain activity.
3.4 Biological Factors & behavior
3.4.1 A study conducted by Tierney et al. in 2001 which utilizes PET scans to investigate the result of brain damage.
3.4.1.1 The aim was to evaluate, using PET scans, the bilingual language compensation following early childhood brain damage
3.4.1.1.1 The target population were 12 participants, who were fluent in sign language as well as MA.
3.4.1.1.1.1 The procedure: PET scanning technologies were used while the participants produced narrative speech or signs.
3.4.1.1.1.1.1 As a result MA's right hemisphere was more active than the others' during the production of both speech and sign language.
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 As a conclusion language function seems to have developed in the right hemisphere instead of the left hemisphere as an adaptation following his early brain damage
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Biological Factor linked back to damage to brain, and specific areas. Behavior linked back to language, and language acquisition
3.4.1.1.2 Background: A 37 year old man (MA) with normal speech functions participate in a normal speech study, it was then discovered that he had a lesion in his left frontal lobe. A result of encephalitis he suffered at the age of 6 weeks. Both his parents were deaf and he used sign language at home. Researchers were curious to know if this might have had something to do with his ability to speak despite the brain damage, that should have prevented him from doing so.
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