1.6 • Apply the most appropriate pollution prevention and/or
2 How is LCA used?
2.1 By manufacturers
2.1.1 Product development
2.1.2 Product improvement
2.1.3 Product comparison
2.2 By public policymakers
2.2.1 Environmental labelling
3 Steps in LCA
3.1 1) Life-cycle inventory
3.2 2) Life-cycle impact assessment
3.3 3) Life-cycle improvement analysis
4 Planning an LCA Project
4.1 • Determine objectives
4.1.1 – Why is the LCA being conducted?
4.2 • Define product under study and its
4.2.1 What is its function?
4.2.2 What is an appropriate functional unit?
4.3 • Choose system boundaries
4.3.1 What inputs and outputs will be studied?
4.3.2 How will data be collected?
5 The Functional Unit
5.1 Especially critical in LCAs conducted to
5.1.1 Plastic VS. Paper bag
6 Uncertainty in Results of Life-Cycle
6.1 • Use of regional or global data
6.2 • Poor quality data
6.3 • Unavailable data
7.1 • Assumptions made when choosing system
boundaries and data sources
7.2 • LCAs are a tool for assessing and minimising
the impact of human activities.
7.3 • Life-cycle stages of a product include raw material
acquisition, manufacturing, use and disposal.
7.4 LCA techniques have been adopted in industry and the
public sector to serve a variety of purposes.
7.5 • Choices made during the planning phase of an LCA have a
profound impact on the results obtained. The choice of functional
unit, particularly when LCAs are conducted to compare products, is