Glossary

Daniel Alzamora
Mind Map by Daniel Alzamora, updated more than 1 year ago
Daniel Alzamora
Created by Daniel Alzamora about 6 years ago
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Glossary of words which explain all about the cardiac system.

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Glossary
  1. Arteries
    1. The arteries are vessels whose walls are formed by three layers (inner layer or endothelium, middle layer and outer layer or adventitia), with a predominance of fibers muscle and elastic fibers in the middle layer.
    2. Cardiovascular system.
      1. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries.
      2. Blood vessels.
        1. They form a network of ducts that carry blood from the heart to the tissues and from the tissues to the heart.
        2. Arterioles.
          1. The arterioles are small arteries whose function is to regulate the flow to the capillaries.
          2. Repolarization.
            1. Recovering the resting membrane potential is due to the opening of potassium channels and the closing of calcium channels.
            2. Cardiac cycle.
              1. A cardiac cycle includes all electrical phenomena (action potential and its propagation) and mechanical (systole: contraction; diastole: relaxation)
              2. Preload or degree of stretching.
                1. Of myocardial fibers during diastole determines the strength of myocardial contraction.
                2. Afterload.
                  1. It is the pressure that must overcome the ventricle during systole to open the atrioventricular valves.
                  2. Heart Rate.
                    1. Is the number of times the heart contracts in one minute (bpm). Proper heart rate is essential for the proper functioning of the heart.
                    2. Depolarization.
                      1. When excitation fibers sinus node arrives to atrial fibers causes the rapid opening of the sodium channels, which starts the rapid depolarization.
                      2. Blood pressure.
                        1. Blood pressure is the hydrostatic pressure of the blood against the vessel wall containing it.
                        2. Cardiac output.
                          1. Is the amount of blood pumped by the heart into the aorta each minute.
                          2. Blood flow.
                            1. Is the volume of blood flowing through any tissue per unit time (ml / min). The total blood flow is the cardiac output.
                            2. Arterial anastomosis:
                              1. It is the union of two arterial branches that supply the same region.
                              2. Cardiac muscle.
                                1. Infarction or heart muscle consists of striated muscle fibers shorter and less circular than skeletal muscle fibers.
                                2. Arteriovenous anastomoses:
                                  1. Is direct communication between an artery and a venule so that no blood flows through the capillary network.
                                  2. Stroke volume
                                    1. Is the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in shrinkage.
                                    2. Anastomosis.
                                      1. It is called anastomosis to the union of two or more vessels.
                                      2. Plateau.
                                        1. In a second phase, slow calcium channel that open facilitate the entry of calcium ions into myocardial fiber.
                                        2. Vascular resistance.
                                          1. Vascular resistance is the force that resists the flow of blood, primarily as a result of this friction against the vessel wall.
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