- The outbreak of the French Revolution marked the start of the MODERN AGE in 1789.
- Because the enlightened despots failed with their changes and ideas, REVOLUTIONARIES imposed their own changes in a violently ways.
The revolutionaries implemented many reforms influenced by the Enlightenment ideas.
They replaced the Ancien Régime with a new regime.
- The new measures of the French Revolution, inspired the first steps towards a new political, economic and social order in Spain.
The revolutionaries introduced new habits and customs to the inhabitants
It reflected the political, economic and social changes of that time
The revolutionaries had a very famous slogan: 'LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY'.
They somtimes added the words 'OR DEATH' , to show that they were going to do anything needed to defend their thoughts and ideas.
This slogan appeaderd on French coins of the 20th century.
The Causes of the French Revolution
The influence of the enlightenment
The French intellectuals and the burgeoisie supported the Enlightenment ideas and tried to apply them to their society and way of life.
For example the equality and freedom of teaching and learning everyone.
The Political Crisis
The Estates General were meetings of people form every social class that advertised the king of issues that took place at that time.
There were three groups:
· clergy (300 people) =1 vote
· nobility (300 people) =1 vote
· middle class and peasants (600 people) = vote
Louis XVI was governing France during this time, and, because he opposed the meeting of the Estates General, they could not show their discomfort or proporsals to limit the king's power.
The Economic Crisis
They were in bankrupt (they helped the American Independence War, the Royal family spent many money...), so the king was asked by the ministers to increase the taxes
The Social Crisis
The different social classes were discontented with the corwn
Nobility and clegy
They wanted to mantain their priviledges and didn't want to pay taxes.
Middle Class and Peasantry
· bourgeoisie wanted to aboilish the absolute monarchy because it didn't allow them to participate in the government.
Petite bourgeoisie suffered the economic difficulties caused by wars, higher taxes and competition from British products.
The peasants had mostly the same problems as the petite bourgeoisie. they also had to pay a higher rent to the clergy and nobility.
Major events of the French Revolution
The Estates General summed in 1788 because the king wanted to increase the taxes
The Third Estate proposed a new voting system: each representative would have an individual vote.
It wasn't approved.
By the Tennis Court Oath, they declared temselves (the Three Estates) officially the representatives of the country and they told that they wouldn't finish their meetings until a new constitution was passed.
The Cahiers of Doleánces were created.
They were documents that collected the complains of all the estates.
The Constituent Assembly
The king agreed and a new constitution was written
At the same time, protester began to riot in the streets and attacked the Bastille (a famous political prison) the 14/7/1789. For this reason, the National Guard was created (to protect the people from the inside)
- the feudal rights were abolished. (The Civil Constitution of the clergy was divided into Jurors and non-Jurors)
- The declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizen was approved. (Enlightenment idea)
Louis XVI tried to escape to Austria but he was discovered.
Flight to Verenne (20-21/06/1791) because of this the republicanism grew.
A new constitution was adopted in September.
The Legislative Assembly
A new legislative Assembly was elected (1791-1792)
2 groups dominated this assembly
-they believed in the revolution and represented the interest the bourgeoisie.
- their political ideas were moderate.
- Wanted to mantain limited suffrage
- one of the most important was Brissot
- they believed in the revolution
- they were radicals
.they wanted to abolish the monarchy and put the king on trial.
- helped the workers
- One of the most importants: Robespierre
- the nobility was unhappy.
- noblemen joined foreign armies
- non jurors also fought.
All of them fought aaginst France
-Austria + Prussia declared the War to France in April 1792.
- The conflict of Valmy (20th September 1792) had the first French victory after several defeats.
-France was declared a Republic.- Louis XVI was accused of treason and was executed.
- European countries declared the war to France.
- Republican calendar (year 1=1972)
- a new law broke out (after the king's execution)
- M.Antoinette, girondists + 45.000 more were executed by the guillotine.-300.000 levy France (for the War)- La Vendée (counter revolution that was supported by the nobility, the Catholic church some peasants and part of the royal family).- The Terror (distatorship)
The Directory and the Consulate
In 1975, the middle class took control in the country.
- they established the Directory to stop violence and executions. (Composed of 5 members)
-Napoleon Bonaparte organised a military coup and established the Consulate.
- There were 3 members, but Napoleon became the First Consul because of the alphabetical order of his surname.