Russia in Transition: 1914-1924

Tanatswa Chinzowu
Mind Map by Tanatswa Chinzowu, updated more than 1 year ago
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GCSE History (Russia) Mind Map on Russia in Transition: 1914-1924, created by Tanatswa Chinzowu on 12/21/2015.

Resource summary

Russia in Transition: 1914-1924
1 The causes and impact of the Revolutions of 1917
1.1 Collapse of Tsarist system
1.1.1 Russian monarch ruled as an AUTOCRAT. Believed God made him Tsar and hade absolute power over russia
1.1.1.1 Tsar ruled with support of ORTHODOX CHURCH, aristocracy (landowners), the army and civil service
1.1.2 1905 Revolution. JANUARY
1.1.2.1 Large gathering of workers came to Tsar's palace, ST PETERSBURGH. Came to ask for imrovement of working conditions and wages.
1.1.2.1.1 Crowds were attacked by troops. Event was known as BLOODY SUNDAY
1.1.2.1.1.1 BLOODY SUNDAY caused peasant revolts, strikes and mutinies in armed forces
1.1.2.2 Tsar Nicholas II published OCOTOBER MANIFESTO
1.1.2.2.1 Promised middle classes a DUMA which would give them a say in how Russia is run
1.1.2.2.1.1 DUMA: a representative assembly (parliament) that the Tsar consulted nut which had little power
1.1.2.2.2 Gave some concessions to peasants- lowered tax, improved working conditions
1.1.2.2.3 Tsar appointed Peter Stolypin as chief minister to bring more reforms.
1.1.2.2.3.1 Stolypin punished rebellion, also developed economy. This helped reduce discontent until the economy took a downturn in 1912
1.2 Opposition to Tsar
1.2.1 Strike in the Lena Goldfields. 1912
1.2.2 MIDDLE CLASS. wanted a more say in Russia's govt. but Duma was powerless before1914
1.2.3 SOCIALIST REVOLUTIONARIES (SRs): Mainly represented peasant farmers and the Bolsheviks
1.2.4 COMMUNISTS: Divided into Bolsheviks/Mensheviks. Agreed with each other about tactics to overthrow tsarist system
1.3 Impact of WWI
1.3.1 Tsar had complete support of people. But when war began to take its toll and by 1917, Tsar's govt. was facing collapse because.....
1.3.1.1 Russian army not well-equipped for German army.
1.3.1.2 Enormous casualties: 9million
1.3.1.3 Tsar took personal control of army, was to blame for Russia's defeat
1.3.1.3.1 While away, Tsarina and adviser Rasputin became increasingly unpopular
1.3.1.4 Inadequate railway system failed to get food to cities. This case food shortages
1.3.1.5 Prices rose (inflation) and wages dropped as goods came short in supply
1.3.1.5.1 Led to strikes
1.4 Main developments during Bolshevik seizure of power
1.4.1 February revolution 1917
1.4.1.1 23rd February: women joined 100,000 strikers for protest on queues of food
1.4.1.1.1 27th February: Soldiers in Petrograd mutinied. Was a turning point as the army was loyal to Tsar until this point. Nicholas ordered Duma to dissolve, but 12 members refused and set up PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE. KORENSKY demanded Nicholas to ABDICATE
1.4.1.1.1.1 Workers began forming councils (SOVIETS)
1.4.1.1.1.2 TSAR ABDICATED MARCH 2nd
1.4.1.1.1.3 Provisional Committe named Provisional Govt: March 3rd. Ran the country
1.4.2 Dual Power period. 1917
1.4.2.1 P.G still continued to war, unpopular because of this decision
1.4.2.2 Mutinies broke out in army
1.4.2.2.1 Kronstadt Mutiny: July. At naval base
1.4.2.3 Peasants were taking over the landowners' estates by force
1.4.2.4 Opposition growing from the Bolsheviks
1.4.2.5 The Petrograd soviet, led by Bolsheviks became more unfriendly with govt. Failed to solve economic problems
1.4.2.6 At the time of the February revolution, Lenin came back as leader of the Bolsheviks. Aimed to overgrow P.G
1.4.2.6.1 Lenin published his views in: APRIL THESES
1.4.2.6.1.1 Stated Bolsheviks offered PEACE, BREAD, LAND and ALL POWER TO SOVIETS
1.4.2.7 Kerensky got a hold of his opponent. . Forced Lenin into hiding
1.4.2.7.1 He was then challenged by General Kornilov; commander of the army. KORNILOV REVOLT
1.4.2.7.1.1 Wanted to impose a strict regime and crush opponents
1.4.2.7.1.2 Kerensky asked Bolsheviks for help; which they did. But Korensky still had problems
1.4.2.7.1.2.1 He lost support of army; was also dependent on Petrograd society (with its strong Bolshevik influence) to run country
1.4.2.7.1.2.2 OCTOBER REVOLUTION: Lenin pursuaded Petrograd Sov. to overthrow Keresnky's govt.
1.4.2.7.1.2.2.1 Bolsheviks staged revolution quickly under Leon Trotsky organization
1.4.2.7.1.2.2.1.1 In 2 days, Trosky's RED GUARDS seized railway stations, telegraph offices and other targets, like Winter Palace.
1.4.2.7.1.2.2.1.1.1 Kerensky fled and Bolshevik takeover succeeded with little bloodshed
2 Consequences of revolutions
2.1 December 1917: Russia agreed on a ceasefire
2.1.1 March 1918: Bolsheviks sign TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK
2.1.1.1 Russia lost various territories: including coal and mine resources; 1/3 of land providing grain; they had to pay reparations- 3million roubles
2.2 The government that Lenin set up in November 1917 was called SOVNARKOM, short for Council of People’s Commissars.
2.2.1 made up solely of Bolsheviks, Lenin did not wish to share power with other political parties.
2.2.1.1 Lenin was Chairman of Sovnarkom, Trotsky was initially Commissar for Foreign Affairs but was appointed Commissar for War in 1918. Stalin was Commissar for Nationalities.
3 Cause and impact of Civil War 1918-21
3.1 Causes
3.1.1 economic and social hardship after October revolution revolution
3.1.1.1 food shortages: Bolsheviks failed to meet food targets due to...
3.1.1.1.1 Problems of Distribution: railway system collapsed due to fuel shortages
3.1.1.1.2 Inflation: peasants were unwillling to sell grains for paper money as value had decrease. they used grains instead to fatten their cattle
3.1.1.1.3 Production problems: Russia's main wheat supplier, Ukraine, was cut off due to the treaty of Brest-Litosvk.
3.1.1.2 Violence on streets due to these circumstances
3.1.1.2.1 one challenge came from an anarchist group called BLACK GUARD.
3.1.1.2.1.1 took over buildings of the well-to-do
3.1.1.2.1.2 had a slogan 'loot the looters'
3.1.2 opposition to Bolsheviks
3.1.2.1 People didn't like Lenin's reforms
3.1.2.1.1 Noble's, the church and other landlord's opposed the decree of land when some of their land was taken
3.1.2.1.2 nationalists who wnated to continue wiith war and were against losing land to Germans due to treaty
3.1.2.1.2.1 were against decree of peace
3.1.2.1.3 other political parties (i.e Socialist Revs) against decree of press; it banned non-Bolshevik newspapers
3.1.2.2 Opposition to the treaty
3.1.2.2.1 patriotic russians opposed treaty very much; as they lost land to the Germans
3.1.2.2.2 people objected treaty because
3.1.2.2.2.1 The dictated nature of the peace
3.1.2.2.2.2 amount of reparations paid
3.1.2.2.2.3 amount of the land lost
3.1.2.2.2.4 the way Lenin and Trotsky were prepared to sacrifice national interest in order to secure peace
3.1.3 Rival factions to Bolsheviks
3.1.3.1 CZECH LEGION
3.1.3.1.1 42k former soldiers who fought for Russia in WWI
3.1.3.1.2 oppposed Bolsheviks as local Soviets attcked them on their way to Russia
3.1.3.1.3 had control of the Trans-SIberian railway
3.1.3.2 Whites
3.1.3.2.1 made of: former tsarists, nationalists, nobles, landowners and wealthy industrialists
3.1.3.2.2 collective name for those who opposed Bolshvks.
3.1.3.2.3 Wanted end to WAR COMMUNISM and independence to Ukraine
3.1.3.3 Greens
3.1.3.3.1 Groups who refused to be in the Whites: Peasants and other minorities
3.1.3.3.2 Wanted CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY
3.1.3.4 FOREIGN POWERS
3.1.3.4.1 made of ALLIED TROOPS who had been sent to Russia 1918: USA, BRITAIN, FRANCE, JAPAN
3.1.3.4.2 Wanted to stop Communism and Japan wanted territory
3.2 Main developments during Civil War
3.2.1 Role of White generals
3.2.1.1 Denekin and Wrangel in SOUTH
3.2.1.1.1 Denekin had army of 150K.
3.2.1.1.1.1 1919: launched counter on Bolsheviks, but failed
3.2.1.1.1.1.1 then replaced by Wrangel.
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Wrangel held until Novemeber 1920, but was evacuated by British and French ships
3.2.1.2 Yudenich WEST
3.2.1.2.1 smallest army: 15K. Reached outskirts of Petrogarad October 1919 with support from ESTONIAN troops
3.2.1.2.2 failed to secure the Petrograd Railway. Enabled Bolshvks to send reinforcements
3.2.1.2.3 Bolsheviks signed armistice with Estonia to recognise their independence. Yudenich army dissolved mid-1920
3.2.1.3 Admiral Kolchak EAST
3.2.1.3.1 army of 140K supported by Czech regiment. By JUNE 1919, captured Kazan and Samara
3.2.1.3.1.1 AUTUMN 1919- Red Army forced him to retreat. Was captured and shot
3.2.1.4 Miller NORTH. A general in the tsarist army
3.2.1.4.1 May 1919, Kolchak appointed him in charge of White Army in region where anti-Bolshevik army was supported by British
3.2.1.4.2 unsuccessful advance in summer 1919, British forces withdrew; Miller's men faced enemy alone.
3.2.1.4.2.1 eventually evacuated to Norway- Feb. 1920
3.2.2 Foreign Power role
3.2.2.1 UK
3.2.2.1.1 called their force: North Russian Expeditionary Force
3.2.2.1.1.1 made of men not fit to serve France
3.2.2.2 France
3.2.2.2.1 Most anti-Bolshevik of foreign powers
3.2.2.2.1.1 Investors poured millions of francs into Russian businesses; but businesses were nationalised; investors lost all money
3.2.2.2.2 Sent troops to Ukraine
3.2.2.2.2.1 But was confused by struggle between Russian Communists, Russian Whites and Ukrainian nationalists.
3.2.2.2.2.1.1 withdrew MARCH 1919. HARDLY FIRED A SHOT
3.2.2.3 Japan
3.2.2.3.1 Saw war as an oppurtunity for expansion. Sent forces into SIBERIA
3.2.2.4 USA
3.2.2.4.1 involvement partly due to fear of Japan spreading land
3.2.3 Role of Red Army
3.2.3.1 Trosky's reforms
3.2.3.1.1 Officers found guilty of cowardice or treachery were executed. However, men who showed initiative and courage were promoted rapidly.
3.2.3.2 Red army were able to drive Yudenich's army away from Petrgrad to protect it
3.2.3.3 JULY 17: MURDER of TSAR Nicholas family
3.2.3.3.1 Yurobsky led local Cheka and murder plot
3.2.3.3.2 Murder would decrease moral for Bolshevik opponents as they do not have anything else to fight for
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