The Evolution of Psychology

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Psychology 104

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The Evolution of Psychology
1 From Speculation to Science:How Psychology Developed
1.1 Philosophy, Physiology, and Psychology
1.1.1 Psychology came from the greeks which then became the definition as the "Study of the mind"
1.1.1.1 Philosophy evolved in the time of the Renaissance which was the study of the ideas about mind, behaviour, and human nature
1.1.1.1.1 Wilhelm Wundt was very important to the study of Psychology as he brought it to be a discipline
1.2 A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall
1.2.1 Wundt worked hard to get psychology as its own individual study rather than a branch under philosophy and physiology
1.2.1.1 Wundt's first laboratory came about at the University of Leipzig. Also in that time he published his first journal on psychology. Known as the founder.
1.2.1.1.1 More labs grew through out North America which expanded the research of psychology that much further.
1.3 The Battle of the "Schools" Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism
1.3.1 Structuralism was based in the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how there elements are related
1.3.1.1 Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather that its structure
1.3.1.1.1 Natural selection, heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
1.3.1.1.1.1 Introspection, the careful, systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience. it was to examine the consciousness of one.
1.4 Watson Alters psychology's course as behaviourism makes its debut
1.4.1 Behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour.
1.4.1.1 Behaviour is defined as to any overt response or activity by an organism
1.4.1.1.1 Stimulus is any detectable input from the environment.
1.4.1.1.1.1 Animals were used to test during studies
1.5 Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
1.5.1 Freud develops the word of unconscious which is defined as thoughts, memories, and desires, that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour.
1.5.1.1 psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour
1.5.1.1.1 Freud's concepts were incorporated into the mainstream of psychology as more was introduced within psychology
1.6 Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviourism Flourishes
1.6.1 Skinner made behaviourism more popular
1.6.1.1 He only wanted to observe the observable behaviour.
1.6.1.1.1 Worked with rats and pigeons. Skinner seen that as the animals did positive responses that would repeat then. As they had negative consequences they would not repeat the behaviour
1.7 The Humanists Revolt
1.7.1 Behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory became popular within schools.
1.7.1.1 Psychoanalytic and behaviourism theory where blended then known as humanism
1.7.1.1.1 Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
1.7.1.1.1.1 Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers emphasized the unique qualities of human behaviour and humans' freedom and potential for personal growth.
1.8 Psychology in Canada
1.8.1 The first experimental lab was at the University of Toronto in 1891 by James Baldwin.
1.8.1.1 Teaching of psychology began at the University of Montreal and University of Toronto
1.8.1.1.1 The Canadian Psychological Association was formed in 1939
1.8.1.1.1.1 Women make up most of the psychology memberships
1.9 Psychology Comes of Age as a profession
1.9.1 Applied psychology, the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems
1.9.1.1 Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
1.9.1.1.1 Clinical psychology grew in the 1950's as it was a profession and a science during World War two.
1.10 A Focus on Culture and Diversity
1.10.1 Canada is becoming a more diverse country
1.10.1.1 Western psychologists were becoming more interested in how cultural factors influence behaviour
1.10.1.1.1 working to learning on how culture is transmitted through soclalization practices and how culture colours one's view in the world.
1.11 Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology
1.11.1 Evolutionary psychology examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
1.11.1.1 There was a gender differences in spatial ability
1.11.1.1.1 Birth of the theoretical perspective in mis 1990's
1.12 Psychology Moves in a Positive Direction: The positive psychology Movement
1.12.1 Martin Seligman was elected as president of the American psychological Association 1997, "Epiphany"
1.12.1.1 He came up with positive psychology movement which uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence
1.12.1.1.1 Three areas of study positive subjective experiences, positive individual traits, and positive institutions and communities.
2 Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified
2.1 Research Areas in Psychology
2.1.1 Psychologists usually specify in an area of the different branches of psychology
2.1.1.1 Need different training and specific skills for each area.
2.1.1.1.1 The nine different research areas in psychology. 1- Developmental psychology 2- Social psychology 3- experimental psychology 4- physiological psychology 5- cognitive psychology 6- personality psychology 7- psychometrics 8- educational psychology 9- health psychology
2.1.1.1.1.1 Social and developmental psychology are popular research areas
2.2 Professional Specialties in Psychology
2.2.1 Four areas of applied psychology: Clinical, counselling, educational, and industrial
2.2.1.1 psychologists do both research and application. Others are therapists or counsellors.
2.2.1.1.1 Psychiatry is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
3 Putting it in Perspective: Seven Key Themes
3.1 Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study
3.1.1 Theme 1: Psychology is empirical. Empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
3.1.1.1 Theme 2: Psychology is Theoretically Diverse. its system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of obsevations
3.1.1.1.1 Theme 3: Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context
3.2 Themes Related to Psychology's Subject Matter
3.2.1 Theme 4: Behaviour is Determined by multiple Causes
3.2.1.1 Theme 5: Behaviour is Shaped by Cultural Heritage. Culture is a variety of shared customs, beliefs, values, and norms
3.2.1.1.1 Theme 6: Heredity and Environment Jointly influence behaviour
3.2.1.1.1.1 Theme 7: People's experiences of the World is highly subjective. demonstrated by Hastorf and Cantril
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