The spread of Europian Colonialism by 1914

Ivana Millan
Mind Map by Ivana Millan, updated more than 1 year ago
Ivana Millan
Created by Ivana Millan over 5 years ago
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cosa de Historia

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The spread of Europian Colonialism by 1914
  1. Imperialism is the extension of a nation's power over the lands.
    1. Strong economic motives. Capitalist states were looking for markets and raw materials.
      1. Great britain found a new colony on a small island called Singapore which soon became a major stopping point for traffic traveling to or from China.
        1. Led to the collapse of monarchies in some conquered countries.
          1. France vs GB.
            1. France was alarmed by british attempts to monopolize trade.
            2. The Vietnamese authorities persecuted the French missionaries because they viewed Christianity as a threat to Confucian doctrine.
              1. Vietnamese empire became a French protectorate.
                1. Protectorate: A political unit that depends on another government for its protection.
                  1. Extended its control forming a new Union of French Indochina.
                  2. After the French conquest of Indochina, Thailand was the only remaining free state in Southeast Asia.
                    1. Believing it was a moral obligation to "civilize other parts of the world" U.S turn the Philippines into an american colony.
                      1. Access to trade with China.
                      2. Chief goals: *Exploit natural resources of the lands and open markets for their own manufactured goods.
                        1. Indirect rule: Colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status.
                          1. Affected local culture less.
                            1. Cheaper
                              1. Easier access to natural resources.
                              2. Direct rule: Colonial government in which local elites were removed from power and replaced by the ones from the colonizing country.
                                1. Westerns came to fear the idea of native peoples being allowed political rights.
                                2. Development of plantation agriculture.
                                  1. Plantation owners kept wages at poverty levels to increase profits.
                                    1. HIgh taxes.
                                  2. Colonial governments built railroads, highways and other structures that benefited native peoples.
                                    1. Resistance came from the existing ruling class and peasant.
                                      1. Early movements failed.
                                      2. New kind of resistance based on nationalism.
                                        1. Westernized intellectuals began it.
                                          1. Also defended economic interests and religious beliefs.
                                        2. Spurred by intense rivalries among countries Europe places Africa under European rule.
                                          1. GB annexed the west coastal states as the first British colony of Gold Coast.
                                          2. The growing European presence in africa increased tensions with African governments.
                                            1. "To open to civilization the only part of our globe where populations, it is, I dare to say, a crusade worthy of this century of progress"- King Leopold II
                                              1. Driving force behind the colonization of Central Africa.
                                              2. Disgusted with British rule, the Boers formed two independent republics.
                                                1. Orange Free State
                                                  1. Transvaal
                                                    1. When gold and diamonds were discovered, british settlers swarmed in looking to make their fortunes.
                                                    2. They believed in the white superiority ordained by God.
                                                    3. British indirect rule became a cause for class and ethnical tensions which erupted after independence started in the XX century.
                                                      1. The French ideal was that Africans assimilate French culture rather than preserving native traditions.
                                                        1. African people doesn't have good job opportunities.
                                                          1. The educated Africans found many aspects of Western culture to be superior to their own. Then the first stirrings of modern nationalism in Africa emerged.
                                                          2. Growing Indian distrust of the British led to a revolt that helped to fuel Indian nationalism.
                                                            1. The Indian National Congress called for a share in the governing process.
                                                              1. Had difficulties because of religious differences.
                                                            2. The viceroy began to rule India in a direct way after the Sepoy Mutiny,
                                                              1. British encouraged Indian farmers to switch from growing food to cotton and, as consequence, food supplies could not keep up with the growing population.
                                                                1. British didn't respected the Indian's cultural heritage.
                                                                  1. The nations of Latin America found themselves dependent on the Wesr.
                                                                    1. U.S was especially prominent in the economic and political affairs.
                                                                      1. Dollar diplomacy: Diplomacy that seeks to strengthen the power of a country by the use of its financial resources.
                                                                        1. They saw the U.S as a modal in regard to industrialization.
                                                                      2. Land owners began to take direct interest in national politics and governing.
                                                                        1. Adopted similar constitutions to those of the U.S and European democracies.
                                                                        2. Diaz created a conservative, centralized government which was supported by the Catholic church, large landowners, foreign capitalists and the army.
                                                                          1. Growing forces for change in Mexico led to a revolution.
                                                                          2. One result of the prosperity increased exports was growth in the middle sectors of Latin American society.
                                                                            1. Lived in cities and sought education and decent incomes.
                                                                            2. The governing elites were able to stifle the political influence of the working class by limiting their right to vote.
                                                                              1. White man's burden
                                                                                1. Bringing the Christian message
                                                                                  1. Bringing the benefits of Western democracy and capitalism.

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