Medical Bacteriology L1

Magdelyn Mueller
Mind Map by Magdelyn Mueller, updated more than 1 year ago
Magdelyn Mueller
Created by Magdelyn Mueller about 4 years ago


2220 Microbiology Mind Map on Medical Bacteriology L1, created by Magdelyn Mueller on 01/31/2016.

Resource summary

Medical Bacteriology L1
1 the skin
1.1 first line of defense
1.1.1 mechanisms to minimise microbial growth secretes lysozymes attacks and weakens bacterial cell walls produces sebum (fatty acid) Propionibacteria metabolizes to produce fatty acids (antimicrobial)ff lower pH than most microbes can survive resident microbiota
1.2 head, armpits, groin, hands and feet are most heavily colonized
1.2.1 microbes + skin secretions = BO antimicrobial deoderant selective against gram positive bacteria reduces volatile aromatic products can promote the colonization by gram negatve bact
1.3 commensal microbiota
1.3.1 coagulase‐negative staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus 40% of healthy adults 90% of hospital staff surgical wound infection
1.3.2 micrococci Micrococcus sedentarius pitting of toughened foot skin produces methanethiol
1.3.3 corynebacteria
1.3.4 propionibacteria
1.3.5 lactobacilli
1.3.6 yeasts genus candida candida albicans, though, does not normally colonize the skin
1.3.7 also host fungi and mites fungi Malassezia furfur mites Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis eat dead epithelium supplemented by sebum
1.3.8 brevibacteria cheesy feet; degree doesn't correlate though
1.4 eyes have specialized skin
1.4.1 bathed in tears
1.4.2 resident microbiota Corynebacterium xerosis
2 the alimentary tract
2.1 oral cavity
2.1.1 saliva washing swallow 30x/hour digestive enzymes & antimicrobials immunoglobin A (IgA) lysozyme lactoferrin α‐haemolytic streptococci Streptococcus salivarius
2.1.2 eprithelial surfaces Streptococcus salivarius
2.1.3 teeth Streptococcus mutans Streptococcus sanguis
2.1.4 gingival crevices Bacteroides, Fusobacterium species and spirochaetes, forming intricate parasitic interactions
2.2 stomach
2.2.1 low, acidic pH
2.2.2 a few acid‐tolerant lactobacilli Helicobacter pylori ulcers highly active urease mycobacteria waxy cell wall
2.3 small intestine
2.3.1 upper: duodenum, jejunum, upper ileum NO resident microbiota digestive secretions, bile acids, intestinal mucus and secretory antitbodies peristalsis if peristalsis is prevented, bacterial overgrowth (intestinal blind loop) occurs
2.3.2 lower ileum microbiota like that of the mouth
2.3.3 large intestine faecal microbiota anaerobes dominate bacteriodes less facultative microbes Escherichia coli
2.4 effects of microbiota
2.4.1 microbiota's metabolism may produce carcinogens people w/o lactase digests oligosacccharides from beans creates flatulence
2.4.2 controls flatulence utilize volatile products reduce our gas from 24 liters to 1 liter
3 the upper respiratory tract
3.1 microbiota of nostrils resembles skin
3.1.1 staphylococci
3.1.2 micrococci
3.1.3 corynebacteria
3.2 microbes inhaled
3.2.1 entrapped in the hairs
3.2.2 entrapped in mucus membranes of the turbinate baffles
3.3 warm, moist upper resp. tract
3.3.1 gram negative bacteria Moraxella Neisseria Haemophilus
3.3.2 gram positive bacteria streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes tonsilitis found in commmensal microbiota of healthy carriers
3.4 not normally colonised
3.4.1 paranasal sinuses
3.4.2 larynx
3.4.3 lower respiratory tract
3.4.4 lungs mucociliary escalator mucus traps microbes cilia drive mucus from the alveoli, up thru trachea
4 the genital tract
4.1 generally not v colonized
4.1.1 regular flushing
4.1.2 secretory antibodies
4.1.3 in males: prostate secretions
4.2 on distal portion
4.2.1 staphylococci
4.2.2 gram-negative cocci
4.2.3 corynebacteria
4.2.4 mycoplasma
4.3 external genitalia
4.3.1 Mycobacterium smegmatis may contaminate urine samples and confuse the laboratory diagnosis of renal tuberculosis
4.3.2 pre‐pubescent and post‐ menopausal women enterococci, coagulase‐negative staphylococci, coliform bacilli and corynebacteria
4.3.3 reproductive years lactobacilli,(Döderlein bacilli), in a mixed microbiota also containing yeasts, corynebacteria and mycoplasmas
5 microbiota
5.1 resident microbiota
5.1.1 Adhere @ suitable niche on/in our body multiply
5.1.2 form long‐term, stable, interdependent relationships with their neighbours and with the human that harbours them
5.2 transient microbiota
5.2.1 1)not find us a hospitable environment
5.2.2 2) are outcompeted by resident microbiota
5.2.3 3) are susceptable to host defenses
6 role of the commensal microbiota
6.1 coexist with host
6.2 Staphylococcus saprophyticus is commensal on skin
7 factors that affect the human comensal microbiota
8 pathogens
8.1 Staphylococcus saprophyticus causes harm and is pathogenic in the urinary tract
8.1.1 in the gemale genital tract, it does not have competing microbiota
9 Microbial access to deep tissues is transient; in healthy individuals any organisms that do enter such sites are rapidly removed by the various host defence mechanisms
9.1 cerebrospinal fluid = sterile
9.2 muscle
9.3 joints
9.4 bones
9.5 connective tissue
9.6 kidneys
9.7 liver
9.8 urinary tract
9.9 spleen
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