Fascist Italy Timeline

Remi Bahar
Mind Map by Remi Bahar, updated more than 1 year ago
Remi Bahar
Created by Remi Bahar about 4 years ago
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2

Description

Mind Map on Fascist Italy Timeline, created by Remi Bahar on 09/02/2016.

Resource summary

Fascist Italy Timeline
1 Prime Minister to Dictator
1.1 Acerbo Law
1.2 1922 Fascist Grand Council

Annotations:

  • -Balboa given a seat
1.2.1 1923 Creates MVSN
1.3 1923 ANI absorbed
1.4 1923 PPI Cavanzzani minister of work & welfare

Annotations:

  • -Cavanzzani promoted Catholic co operation with the PNF -Sturzo resigns -Vatican supports PNF instead
1.5 Stefani Orthodox Economic minister
1.6 Catholic policies

Annotations:

  • -Increases clerical pay and introduces crucifixes into schools
1.7 Matteloti Crisis

Annotations:

  • -PCI found out about it -Car number plate matched Mussolini's press secetary Rossi -Conservatives alienated, Ras wanted more, PCI/ PSI calling to an end of Fascist Government
1.7.1 Aventine Secession

Annotations:

  • -Failed as it only increased support for Mussolini within the Fascist Grand Council. Failed to take off
1.7.1.1 100 deputies

Annotations:

  • -Divided
1.7.2 Mussolini called for end to PNF violence

Annotations:

  • -Ras demanded he defend the Fascist revolution or they will find a new leader -Salandra declared opposition to Mussolini 
1.8 Fascist State
1.8.1 Youth

Annotations:

  • -OND
1.8.1.1 Boys

Annotations:

  • -Fasicst youth front/ avantguardisti 14-17 -Sons of the she wolf 6-8,  Ballila 8-14. Perfect Ballila dreamt of death
1.8.1.1.1 Future soliders

Annotations:

  • -Lots of sporting activities -Firearms training
1.8.1.2 Girls
1.8.1.2.1 Future mothers

Annotations:

  • -Did some sports such as gymnastics -Learnt maternal skills
1.8.1.3 Success?
1.8.1.3.1 Mothers

Annotations:

  • -1936 PNF survey showed girls were more interested in sports
1.8.1.3.2 Employability
1.8.1.3.3 Southern Question
1.8.1.3.4 Did not join

Annotations:

  • -Oppositional youth groups
1.8.1.3.5 1934 7 million

Annotations:

  • -Before complusory. 1924 only 3000
1.8.1.3.6 WW2

Annotations:

  • -Same youth group system produced loyal Italian soliders who fought to the death and antifascists
1.8.1.4 Education
1.8.1.4.1 Teachers union

Annotations:

  • -Antifascist teachers removed in 1920's, in 1933 membership of the PNF was compulsory
1.8.1.4.2 Promoted PE, RE
1.8.1.4.3 Cult of Il Duce

Annotations:

  • -Pupils encouraged to make links between Classical Italians and Mussolini, their modern day embodiment -Saviour myth
1.8.1.4.4 1929 Ministry of National Education

Annotations:

  • -School compulsory 6-11
1.8.1.5 Terror and Propoganda

Annotations:

  •  -1926 banned all political parties  -Death penalty, special tribunal who could also send politcal opponents into exile(confino) They would face discrimination after -1923 Nationalists merged with fascists,  blueshirts -Farinacci replaced by Turati who centralised power 
1.8.1.5.1 Tribunals
1.8.1.5.2 OVRA

Annotations:

  • -1926 Bochinnu.  Broke up antifascist organisations,  spies
1.8.1.5.3 Took over party

Annotations:

  • -Party officers appointed my Mussolini -No fascist ckngress held after 1925, only Mussolini could call them -Some wanted a fascist revolution.  Membership doubled 1932-34 -Rule by decree -1929 in control of 8 ministries  -
1.8.1.5.4 Cult of Il Dulce

Annotations:

  • -Propoganda oictures
1.8.1.5.5 Anti-Semitism
1.8.2 Economy
1.8.2.1 Battle for Lira

Annotations:

  • -Mussolini stopped Lira from depreciating, started after WW1 -Good for imports, bad for exports
1.8.2.2 Battle for Grain 1925

Annotations:

  • -Wheat production increased 40% 1920's to 1930's -Taxed imports -State provided storage facilities -Other crops would be more efficent. Propoganda utilised success
1.8.2.3 Battle for Land 1928

Annotations:

  • -Pentoine marshes, mosquito infested, cleared for housing -1940 programme scrapped. 0.5% population owned 40% of the land
1.8.2.4 Autarky

Annotations:

  • -Taxed imports. Industry boom, Fiat mass production 50 000 to 350 000 car ownership, workforce doubled -1925 Italy invaded Ethopia, sanction-Shortages. Olive oil imported -Infrastructure development subsidised. Autotrade in Northern Italy
1.8.2.5 Corporate
1.8.2.6 Rocco Laws 1926

Annotations:

  • -Workers comitees led by Fascist officials. Didn''t cover all areas. Rocco laws 1926-29 created them.  -Came to agreements -Ministry of corporations set up
1.8.2.7 Banking

Annotations:

  • -Government reduced long-term loans
1.8.2.8 Rearmament

Annotations:

  • -1939 still not ready for war
1.8.3 Transformismo
1.8.3.1 Church
1.8.3.1.1 Concordat

Annotations:

  • -Roman Catholism made state religion
1.8.3.1.2 1929 Laterna Treaty

Annotations:

  • -Created Vatican City -750 million lira compensation for reunification -Supported by 90% plebisicite. Remains today
1.8.3.1.3 Christian Leader

Annotations:

  • -Promoted Christian values. Banned contraception, spoke for women homemakers
1.8.3.1.4 Teamed up

Annotations:

  • -Pope Pius XI was anticommunist -Catholic Action Party instructed Catholics to vote for Fascist representatives -Catholic church endorsed Mussolini's foreign policy
1.8.3.1.5 Tension

Annotations:

  • -PNF controlled education -Antisemetic decrees -"We have no need encylical" -Catholic Action youth group -
1.8.4 Government Structure
1.8.4.1 King/Mussolini

Annotations:

  • --1925 Mussolini made head of Government. Accountable only to King not Parliment. Laws had to be approved by parliment, but he could introduce legislation and control what they discussed
1.8.4.1.1 Parliment, Senate

Annotations:

  • -In 1928 parliment was made of candidates chosen from a list by the Fascist Grand Council. List made by fascist organisations and public bodies -1928 Fascist Grand Council made most important legal body in Italy. Major Government and Party policy discussed and approved by Grand Council. Theoretically provided PNF a way to retain power even if Mussolini died -However, Mussolini could appoint top PNF leaders, set laws to be debated, didn't consult them. Barely met -Mussolini left Senate (chosen by the King) alone. Overtime ensured more Fascists
1.8.4.1.1.1 Prefects

Annotations:

  • -Wide ranging duties. Organised police, censored local newspapers, reported on local PNF, so he could control PNF throughout Italy -Mostly conservative elite, career civil servants not as the ras hoped themselves
1.8.4.1.1.1.1 Podesta

Annotations:

  • -Mostly conservative elites not fascists -Due to patronage, strengthened Mussolini's power while weakening the PNF's power 
1.9 More
1.9.1 Victor Emanuelle 2nd

Annotations:

  • -Motivations: lacked confidence in Facta to control the situation, feared army would side with Mussolini, Salandra and his supports encouraged him not to sign the decree -Army chiefs promised to follow the king's orders but could not gurantee the loyalty of their soliders when asked to fire upon the fascist -He may not have wanted bloodshed. Cousin Duke of Aosta was a fascist supporter, Mussolini hinted if the Fascists took over Emanuelle could be replaced by his taller, stronger, more manly cousin
1.9.2 Mussolini appointed PM

Annotations:

  • -Facta resigned. Liberals who hoped to take over disagreed -King turned to Salandra. Salandra offered Mussolini a place in his Government. Mussolini being powerful enough wanted to be PM. Salandra declined the King's offer -Salandra, Orlanda, Giolitti all wanted to be PM but opposed eachother so much they recommended to the King it would be better to appoint Mussolini -Mussolini made a show of acting calm. Unhooked his phone, visited theatre -King offered Mussolini PM in a coalition -Mussolini needed a more powerful image of his ascension to power so he organised the March on Rome -50 000 Fascists organised and led by the Quadrumvirs with Mussolini held a victory parade, to make it seem they gained power through strength not the incompetence of their opponents -Mussolini played on this during his time in power, with History state textbooks writing 3000 fascist martyrs died during the march in a civil war -Quadrumvirs four leaders of squads. Pictured alongside Mussolini intially, but as Fascism was replaced with Mussolinism they faded into the background. Stationed Balbo and De Vecchi as colonial administrators of Somalia and Libya
1.9.3 Parlimentary compromise and coercion

Annotations:

  • -
1.9.4 Controlling the PNF

Annotations:

  • -Created rival organisation the Fascist Grand Council. Appointed De bono, Balbo two quadrumvirs -Helped overcome his weak power in the Liberal cabinet by bypassing them. Centralised control over Fascist party, Mussolini was the sole leader who could appoint members -1923 Fascist Grand Council created MVSN. Absorbed all squadristi formalising their role as a party-based paramilitary force who helped support the police/army in defending the fascist revolution. Part of state -300 000 MVSN members pledged their allegiance to Mussolini and Italy -Undermined ras, helped stop unneccesary squadristi violence (socialist threat neglible) -Army, liberal elite, king supported the move. Better than being independent under ras -Increasing size of the PNF, diluted the influence of older more revolutionairy fascists as new members were mostly middle class
1.9.5 Acerbo law and 1924 election, liberal attitude

Annotations:

  • -Mussolini wanted to hold a general election to strengthen his position -Proportional representation made it hard to win a majority in parliment -Mussolini introduced Acerbo law. 66% of the seats to party with over 25% of the vote -Claimed it would bring stability and allow the Government to finally pass the policies Italy needed -PCI, PSI opposed. King, Vatican, Giolitti supported it. PPI pressured to abstain from voting -Fascists applied pressure, staged mass demonstrations threatening violence if the bill wasn't passed. Mussolini wore a blackshirt to parliment on the day the law was to be debated -Acerbo law passed. Mussolini called for election -Campaign tainted by violence. PSI leader Piccinni murdered, hundereds of opposition clubs and offices destroyed by fascist blackshirts -Despite Mussolini trying to suppress the violence. He believed he needed a legitimate victory -PNF won elections -Orlanda and Salandra were included on government electoral lists alongside the fascists -Opposition was divided between PCI, PSI, PPI and some Liberals who didn't want to work with fascist Giolitti. Didn't unite -64% turnout, 66.3% for Fascist electroral list. Greatest victory since unification -Fascist deouties greatly increased -Violence helped but was not the deciding factor. A belief that Italy needed a strong man also helped
  • -In Italy the electorate voted for a list of candidates rather than a direct candidate. Candidates were chosen from that list based on the votes for each party -Many Liberals lacked idealogy and were willing to work with whoever gave them the best chance -Thus when Mussolini invited liberal and Catholics to join the national list, many joined. Most elected were part of the fascists
1.9.6 Matteoti

Annotations:

  • -PCI, PSI, PPI still had seats in parliment -When parliment reopened Matteoti, PCI leader made a strong speech. Denouced violence, saying it was the only reason the Fascists won. Said Fascists were determined to establish a dictatorship regardless of the electoral results -Speech was embarrasing. Rumors of Matteoti having a large file on Fascist party corruption he would make public -Matteoti kidnapped on way to parliment. Body found in a shallow grave -Took over 1 month to find the corpse, but it was clear what had happened -Witness matched numberplate of the car Matteoti was dragged into to Mussolini's press secetary Rossi -Dumini led the kidnapping. Leader of a fascist terror squad with links to key fascist figures -Mussolini was not linked directly, but the scandal threatened to topple the PNF government -Mussolini surrounded by pressure. Old conservative elite concerned with backing a Prime Minister implicated in murder. Antifascist parties calling for removal of Mussolini and overthrow of fascist government. Ras saw the murder as the first step in a violent fascist revolution that would establish a dictatorship -100 antifascist deputies left parliments to establish their own parliment on the Aventine hill, the Aventine secession. Claimed government was unconstitutional  -Mussolini had the backing of the King, Pope, army, elites, buisness as he was the best option for Italy relative to the alternatives. They supported his values, and would not want another leader especially if it helped the socialists -Aventine seccession made passing laws in parliment easier. Aventine seccession also divided in idealogy, variety of antifascists. King woudn't dismiss Mussolini, could not agree on what to do -Mussolini reassured political elites. Nationalists Federzoni, Rocco made interior and justice minister. Federzoni well respectded, gained a key position (internal security) -Mussolini, pressured by army, ordered PNF to stop all forms of violence and remove any dissidents. Mussolini met with squad delegates who demanded he defend the revolution or they would remove him as leader of the PNF -Salandra had declared his opposition to Mussolini. Mussolini feared Salandra could influence the King into dismissing Mussolini -It's debatable if Mussolini murdered Matteoti. Some say he was ignorant others say he commanded it. Mussolini was unsure how to act after, the murder was poorly planned almost toppled the Government. Dumini recieved money from PNF, Matteoti's widow and children recieved money from Mussolini
1.9.7 1925 Establishment of the dictatorship

Annotations:

  • -1925 Mussolini made a key speech to parliment announcing the establishment of a fascist dictatorship. Dictatorship not of the party but of Mussolini, Mussolinism -Mussolini formed a new cabinet. No liberals. Mussolini was Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of war, Minister of navy, Minister of aviation -Appointed Farinacci as press secetary. Purged party of radicals who disagreed with Mussolini's poltical direction. Also increased PNF membership. New members saw membership and loyalty to Mussolini as a career advantage, not interested in a fascist revoltion -Fascist Grand Council approved a motion forcing ras to disband remaining squads and enlist in the milita. End of squadrismo -Mussolini won support of the military. Increased officer and general's pay, appointed conservative monarchist Badoglio chief of general staff instead of a feared radical fascist -Palazzo vidoni pact. Undermined opposition trade unions, more subsurvient to the trade unions so gained support from industrialists
1.9.8 1925-26 Repression and constitutional amendments

Annotations:

  • -1925 Socialist deputy Zaniboni arrested for plotting to assasinate Mussolini -Mussolini banned Zaniboni's political party the PSU and introduced a press law that meant all journalism had to be approved and supervised by the state -Law introduced allowing Mussolini to sack any public employee whose actions (at work or home) were hostile to the PNF -Title of Prime Minister changed to Head of Government and Duce of Fascism -Parliment's right to a vote of no confidence removed, Mussolini could rule by decree -After an attempted assasination in 1926, Italy was made a one party PNF state -Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State set up to prosecute antifascists who would have no right to appeal -Aventine seccesion deputies excluded from parliment permenantly as were communist parliamentarians who stayed in parliment to fight Mussolini's policies. Their leader Gramsci was arrested -Many antifascists left Italy. Their citizenship was withdrawn and their property confiscated under new fascist legislation -Mussolini abolished local Government, no more mayors. Mussolini>Prefects>Podesta. Prefects replaced ras as most powerful provinical leaders -New PNF secetary Turati stated in any conflict between the ras and Prefects, the Prefects would take precadence. Fascist members needed to understand that Mussolini was dictator of the party and Italy -This was the rule of Mussolinism not Facism -The attempted assasinations sped up the establishment of Mussolini's dictatorship. They created a climate of fear, espeically in the King which Mussolini used to pass these undemocratic laws
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