Turning to Crime - Upbringing

Dom W
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Psychology Mind Map on Turning to Crime - Upbringing, created by Dom W on 12/19/2013.

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Dom W
Created by Dom W almost 6 years ago
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Turning to Crime - Upbringing
1 Farrington
1.1 Background
1.1.1 Influence of upbringing on criminality
1.1.2 1. Risk Factors 2. Intergenerational Transmission 3. Protective Factors
1.2 Aim
1.2.1 To document the start, duration and end of offending behaviour from childhood and to adulthood in families
1.3 Design
1.3.1 Longitudinal
1.4 Method
1.4.1 Boys taken from 6 state schools in South London
1.5 Sample
1.5.1 411 boys aged 8/9 in 1953/4
1.5.2 White working class
1.5.3 Latest report - Interviews at aged 48 (93% interviewed)
1.6 Results
1.6.1 Aged 48: 40% had convictions
1.6.2 Offences peak age was 17
1.6.3 Those starting criminality at ages 10-30 --> 91% reconvicted
1.6.4 Self report: 93% committed at least 1 offence. 7% Chronic offenders.
1.7 Conclusion
1.7.1 Early prevention --> Wide ranging benefits
1.7.2 Most important risk factors; intergenerational transmission, low IQ, poverty.
1.8 Evaluation
1.8.1 Developmental, Holistic, Deterministic, Situational, Labelling.
2 Sutherland
2.1 Core Assumptions
2.1.1 Deviance occurs when people define a certain human situation as an appropriate occasion for violating social norms or criminal laws
2.1.2 Definitions of the situation are acquired through an individual’s history of past experience
2.2 9 Principles
2.2.1 1. Criminal behaviour is learned
2.2.2 2. Criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication
2.2.3 3. The principle part of the learning of criminal behaviour occurs within intimate personal groups
2.2.4 8. The process of learning criminal behaviour by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning
2.2.5 4. When criminal behaviour is learned, the learning includes the techniques of committing the crime
2.2.6 5. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favourable or unfavourable
2.2.7 7. Number of contacts with criminals over non-criminals may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
2.2.8 6. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favourable to violation of law over definitions unfavourable to violation of law
2.2.9 9. While criminal behaviour is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values
2.3 Evaluation
2.3.1 Situational
2.3.2 Deterministic
2.3.3 Reductionist
2.3.4 Social & Behaviourist
3 Wikström and Tafel
3.1 Background
3.1.1 Socio-economic deprivation can be seen as a plausible explanation for the crime of theft; however, we still need to consider individual differences
3.1.2 Disadvantaged neighbourhoods are associated with gangs; however, this links more clearly to the influence of peers on criminality
3.2 Aim
3.2.1 To analyse the relationship between individual factors, lifestyle and adolescent offending
3.3 Design
3.3.1 Cross-sectional
3.4 Sample
3.4.1 Nearly 2000 Year 10 (14– to 15–year-old) pupils
3.5 Method
3.5.1 Interviews
3.5.2 Data collection
3.6 Results
3.6.1 44.8 per cent of the males and 30.6 per cent of the females had committed at least one crime
3.6.2 9.8 per cent of the males and 3.8 per cent of the females had committed a serious crime of theft
3.6.3 One in eight offenders were reported to or caught by the police for their last committed crime
3.6.4 One in eight offenders were reported to or caught by the police for their last committed crime
3.6.5 Offenders were more often drunk and more often used drugs than other youths
3.7 Conclusions
3.7.1 Presence of 3 groups of adolescent offenders
3.7.1.1 Propensity-induced
3.7.1.2 Lifestyle-dependent
3.7.1.3 Situationally-limited
3.8 Evaluation
3.8.1 Social
3.8.2 Behavioural perspective
3.8.3 Deterministic from influence of others, but acknowledges individual differences and therefore free will
3.8.4 Holistic

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