Behavioural Approach to Psychology

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AS Level Psychology Mind Map on Behavioural Approach to Psychology, created by emilyoliviatapp on 12/30/2013.
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Behavioural Approach to Psychology
1 KEY ASSUMPTIONS
1.1 ONLY behaviour is important.
1.2 All behaviours are learned. Abnormal behaviours are those that are MALADAPTIVE.
1.3 Behaviour is learned through...
1.3.1 Classical conditioning.
1.3.2 Operant conditioning.
1.3.3 Social learning.
2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
2.1 Learning through association: e.g., a neutral stimulus (a bell) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (food) to produce a new stimulus-response link (drooling).
2.1.1 LITTLE ALBERT - WATSON & RAYNER (1920)
2.1.1.1 Showed a little child a rat, and he liked it. Everytime the white rat was shown, a metal bar was struck to make a scary noise. NEUTRAL STIMULUS of the RAT was paired with the UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS of the SCARY NOISE to produce the STIMULUS-RESPONSE LINK of FEAR OF THE RAT.
2.2 Psychological disorders occur when a neural experience produces an unpleasant response; the neutral experience is then avoided in future. Eg, being bitten by a dog may result in a phobia of all dogs.
2.3 Preparedness. OHMAN ET AT (2000) could condition people to fear spiders... but not flowers.
3 OPERANT CONDITIONING
3.1 Learning occurs through reinforcement.
3.1.1 SKINNER (1974)
3.1.1.1 Conditioned rats so that when a level is pulled, food is released. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.
3.1.1.1.1 Then, level produces electric shock. PUNISHMENT. Decreases likelihood of behaviour being repeated.
3.2 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT increases likelihood of behaviour being repeated. PUNISHMENT decreases likelihood of behaviour being repeated.
3.3 Psychological disorders occur when a MALADAPTIVE behaviour is POSITIVELY REINFORCED e.g. when a child gets what she wants through tantrums, she is more likely to behave violently as an adult.
4 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
4.1 A development of operant conditioning by BANDURA (1960s)
4.2 VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT is when behaviours are learnt through WATCHING OTHERS and SEEING REWARDS or PUNISHMENTS THEY RECIEVE.
4.3 Psychological disorders occur when a MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOUR is seen to be POSITIVELY REINFORCED e.g. EATING DISORDERS are often linked to SUPER-THIN MODELS AND ACTRESSES.
5 EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH
5.1 STRENGTHS
5.1.1 Provides explanations for disorders such as eating disorders. BECKER (1999) found that when TV was introduced in Fiji there was a 16% rise in numbers of girls at high risk of eating disorders.
5.1.2 Treatments based of behavioural approaches are successful in treatment of some disorders. Because the treatment is based on the model, the if treatment works, then the basis of the model works, proving the model is correct.
5.2 WEAKNESSES
5.2.1 Many people who suffer from phobias have NOT suffers traumas that caused them.
5.2.2 Overly simplistic. Ignores genetics, cognitive and emotional factors; places all emphasis on learned behaviours.
5.2.3 Based largely on animal studies.
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