Methodologies and Approaches for ELLs (Benefiting All Students)

hgarrett
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hgarrett
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Methods and approaches to help teachers with ELL students learn language through content and academic language.

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Methodologies and Approaches for ELLs (Benefiting All Students)
1 ICB- Integrated Content-Based Instructional Approach
1.1 Instruction given through thematic units. Academic and language development is achieved across the circulum.
1.1.1 The learning of the language will come through the learning of the content
1.1.1.1 Foundation comes from content learning and language acquisition through experiences that allow them to use language to contextualize the academic content.
1.1.1.1.1 Learning occurs through real world experiences with hands-on activities
1.1.1.1.1.1 When planning, the students' needs academically and for language should be at the forefront. It starts with selecting a theme, topic, objectives, activities, and creating the classroom environment.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Objectives should be connected with the topic beginning presented.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Language Objective- Students work on the four literacy domains: reading, listening, speaking, and writing.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Content Objective- This is the academic content that will be taught in the lesson.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Gather materials needed for the lesson and arrange the classroom to fit the needs of the instruction of the lesson.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Instruction- Should include the following: Teaching the vocabulary (This should be done prior to the lesson), Building background knowledge (Very important), Literacy domains, Graphic organizers, Learning centers, and Cognitive engagement.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1 Assessment- This provides feedback on the lesson.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Formative assessment takes place throughout the lesson. This is immediate feedback to help the teacher see if students are understanding the concept.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1.2 Summative assessment is assessed at the end of the lesson for the completed work of the students. This might need a rubric for grading.
2 SIOP- Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Approach
2.1 Focuses more on content-based ESL instruction. It combines different techniques and strategies in a way that helps the students to have a low affective filter.
2.1.1 Emphasizes on language and content objectives
2.1.1.1 This is done through these four strategies: hands-on activities, visuals, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary. The activities need to be scaffolded to fit the needs of the students.
2.1.1.1.1 Preparation is fundamental for the lesson to be successful. This is crucial for the teacher to plan the lesson around the proficiency of the students. Also, it is important to gather the materials need for the lesson.
2.1.1.1.1.1 Content and language objectives should come from the state standards. It should be stated clearly so that the students know what they are getting from the lesson.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Content should not be watered down for the CLD students. Scaffold instruction so they are cognitively engaged.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Meaningful Activities: The students need opportunities to work with the four literacy domains (reading, writing, listening, and speaking).
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Creating assignments to fit the proficiency level of the CLD students. The expectations for each level is different; however, the same content is given to all students. The assignments are authentic opportunities to communicate for both social and academic reasons.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 Instruction is key for building background and providing comprehensible input.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.1 Accessing prior knowledge is important so that CLD students and all students can content their old knowledge with the new knowledge. Building from what they already know and expanding on their knowledge.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.2 Comprehensible input happens when the language environment fosters the second language through meaningful activities and contextualization. The teacher needs to provide cues to help CLD students know when important information is being given. This can be done through manipulatives, videos, pictures, etc.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3 Strategies need to foster and develop high order thinking. Teachers guide the students through the process to successfully apply information to new knowledge.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3.1 Interaction should be taking place between students and teachers. This is done through a student-centered classroom. Less talk by teacher and more talk by the students and their peers. Interaction can take place in small groups or with partners.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3.1.1 CLD students can use their first language to foster their learning. This will create meaning for the students. Students learn from each other.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3.1.2 Practice and application are important for the students. They have to have real practice with the four literacy domains. They will build understanding of their knowledge by using manipulatives and activities that require them to apply what they know of the language and academic content.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3.1.2.1 Lesson Delivery must be purposeful and must be presented an appropriate rate. Teacher needs to provide support for both the content and language objective.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3.1.2.1.1 Review and assessment provide the needed feedback necessary to know if the objectives were met. There needs to be review of the vocabulary and the content presented.
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.3.2 Scaffolds instruction
2.1.1.2 There are eight components to the SIOP lesson.
2.2 Communicative Approach
3 CALLA- Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
3.1 This approach is ideal for both English language learners and any struggling student.
3.2 It has three main components: topics (standards) from content areas, development of literacy and language of academics, and explicit instruction using strategies.
3.2.1 Content is taught to build knowledge for the foundation of the subject areas. Content should be authentic and provide new knowledge and skills.
3.2.1.1 Learning Strategies can help with the learning of content and academic language.
3.2.1.1.1 We must build background knowledge to help transfer knowledge from their first language to English.
3.2.1.1.2 Use graphic organizers to organize thoughts
3.2.1.1.3 Skills that help develop processing skils
3.2.1.1.4 Teaching the content in smaller chunks with meaningful activities is more ideal than larger chunks of information at one time. Keys points for teaching the content include building background knowledge, experiential learning, teaching in multiple ways, teaching vocabulary, high order questioning, and monitoring.
3.2.1.1.4.1 Graphic organizers help in the processing of information and the retention of the information.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1 Learning strategies should be taught for both academic and content language.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1 Academic language includes the four language skills which are reading, writing, listening, and speaking.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1.1 Academic language functions are needed throughout all content areas. Some of these skills include justifying, explaining, analyzing, justifying, etc.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1.1.1 CALLA wants students to use these skills not just know them.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1.2 Preforming classroom observations can help provide assistance in lesson planning and making judgements about the academic language that is occurring in the classroom. This can be a good tool to help teachers improve lessons for their students.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1.2.1 Teaching academic language is something that the teachers make students aware of the language in English and their L1. Students are aware of the academic language because the teachers give them opportunities to identify what the academic language needs are.
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1.2.1.1 Develops CALP in both L1 and L2
3.2.1.1.4.1.1.1.2.1.2 Learning strategies incorporative metacognition, cognitive, and social development
3.3 Good for all levels of proficiency
3.4 Cognitive Approach
4 How the CALLA, ICB, and SIOP approaches are similar to each other
4.1 All of these approaches have been researched and are useful for English language learners. They are also useful for all learners.
4.1.1 They all focus on academic/content language and social language being taught in a way that language is at the forefront of activities.
4.1.1.1 This happens through careful planning and meaningful activities.
4.1.1.1.1 All explain how important building background knowledge is for students before learning new information.
4.1.1.1.1.1 All explain that strategies must be taught to students and used to help guide their learning.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Use of graphic organizers is important for mapping out thinking and remembering new content.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 All have assessment as an important key to instruction
4.1.1.1.1.1.2 Cooperative learning is important
5 Grammatical Based Approach
5.1 Teacher centered environment with focus on rules and structure of language
5.1.1 The focus was more on reading and writing. It did not focus on speaking and listening.
5.1.1.1 The students L1 is not valued and can not be used in the classroom.
5.1.1.1.1 Teacher provides drill and repetitive practice for the students.
5.1.1.1.1.1 Not much use for oral language because the focus is on the grammatical skills
6 Reference:
6.1 Herrera, S. G., & Murry, K. G. (2011). Mastering ESL and bilingual methods: Differentiated instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
6.2 Chamot, A. U. (2009). The CALLA handbook: implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson, Longman.
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