1.1 Instruction given through
thematic units. Academic and
language development is
achieved across the circulum.
1.1.1 The learning of the
language will come through
the learning of the content
22.214.171.124 Foundation comes from content learning and language
acquisition through experiences that allow them to
use language to contextualize the academic content.
126.96.36.199.1 Learning occurs through
real world experiences
with hands-on activities
188.8.131.52.1.1 When planning, the students' needs
academically and for language should be at
the forefront. It starts with selecting a
theme, topic, objectives, activities, and
creating the classroom environment.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Objectives should be
connected with the topic
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Language Objective- Students work
on the four literacy domains:
reading, listening, speaking, and
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Content Objective- This
is the academic content
that will be taught in the
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Gather materials needed for the
lesson and arrange the
classroom to fit the needs of the
instruction of the lesson.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 Instruction- Should include the
following: Teaching the vocabulary
(This should be done prior to the
lesson), Building background
knowledge (Very important), Literacy
domains, Graphic organizers, Learning
centers, and Cognitive engagement.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 Assessment- This provides feedback on the lesson.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Formative assessment takes place
throughout the lesson. This is
immediate feedback to help the
teacher see if students are
understanding the concept.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1.2 Summative assessment is
assessed at the end of the
lesson for the completed work
of the students. This might need
a rubric for grading.
2.1 Focuses more on content-based ESL instruction. It
combines different techniques and strategies in a way
that helps the students to have a low affective filter.
2.1.1 Emphasizes on language and content objectives
22.214.171.124 This is done through these four strategies: hands-on activities, visuals,
cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary. The activities need to be scaffolded
to fit the needs of the students.
126.96.36.199.1 Preparation is fundamental for the lesson to be successful. This is
crucial for the teacher to plan the lesson around the proficiency of the
students. Also, it is important to gather the materials need for the
188.8.131.52.1.1 Content and language objectives should come from
the state standards. It should be stated clearly so that
the students know what they are getting from the
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Content should not be watered down for the CLD
students. Scaffold instruction so they are cognitively
220.127.116.11.1.1.2 Meaningful Activities: The students need opportunities to work
with the four literacy domains (reading, writing, listening, and
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Creating assignments to fit the proficiency level of the CLD
students. The expectations for each level is different; however,
the same content is given to all students. The assignments are
authentic opportunities to communicate for both social and
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Instruction is key for building background and providing comprehensible input.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 Accessing prior knowledge is important so that CLD students and all students
can content their old knowledge with the new knowledge. Building from
what they already know and expanding on their knowledge.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2 Comprehensible input happens when the language
environment fosters the second language through
meaningful activities and contextualization. The
teacher needs to provide cues to help CLD students
know when important information is being given. This
can be done through manipulatives, videos, pictures,
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3 Strategies need to foster and develop high order
thinking. Teachers guide the students through the
process to successfully apply information to new
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.1 Interaction should be taking place between students
and teachers. This is done through a student-centered
classroom. Less talk by teacher and more talk by the
students and their peers. Interaction can take place in
small groups or with partners.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.3.1.1 CLD students can use their first language to
foster their learning. This will create meaning
for the students. Students learn from each
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.1.2 Practice and application are important for the students. They have to
have real practice with the four literacy domains. They will build
understanding of their knowledge by using manipulatives and activities
that require them to apply what they know of the language and
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Lesson Delivery must be purposeful and must be presented an
appropriate rate. Teacher needs to provide support for both the
content and language objective.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 Review and assessment provide the needed feedback necessary to know if the
objectives were met. There needs to be review of the vocabulary and the content
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.2 Scaffolds instruction
18.104.22.168 There are eight components to the SIOP lesson.
2.2 Communicative Approach
3 CALLA- Cognitive Academic
Language Learning Approach
3.1 This approach is ideal for
both English language
learners and any struggling
3.2 It has three main components:
topics (standards) from content
areas, development of literacy
and language of academics, and
explicit instruction using
3.2.1 Content is taught to build knowledge
for the foundation of the subject
areas. Content should be authentic
and provide new knowledge and
22.214.171.124 Learning Strategies can help with the learning of
content and academic language.
126.96.36.199.1 We must build background knowledge to help
transfer knowledge from their first language to
188.8.131.52.2 Use graphic organizers to organize thoughts
184.108.40.206.3 Skills that help develop processing skils
220.127.116.11.4 Teaching the content in smaller chunks with meaningful activities is more ideal
than larger chunks of information at one time. Keys points for teaching the
content include building background knowledge, experiential learning,
teaching in multiple ways, teaching vocabulary, high order questioning, and
18.104.22.168.4.1 Graphic organizers help in the processing of information and the
retention of the information.
22.214.171.124.4.1.1 Learning strategies should be taught for both academic and content language.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Academic language includes the four language skills which are reading, writing, listening, and speaking.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 Academic language functions are needed throughout all
content areas. Some of these skills include justifying, explaining,
analyzing, justifying, etc.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 CALLA wants students to use these skills not just know them.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 Preforming classroom observations can help provide assistance in lesson
planning and making judgements about the academic language that is
occurring in the classroom. This can be a good tool to help teachers
improve lessons for their students.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.1 Teaching academic language is something that the teachers make students aware of the
language in English and their L1. Students are aware of the academic language because the
teachers give them opportunities to identify what the academic language needs are.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.1.1 Develops CALP in both L1 and L2
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.1.2 Learning strategies incorporative
metacognition, cognitive, and social
3.3 Good for all levels of proficiency
3.4 Cognitive Approach
4 How the CALLA, ICB, and SIOP approaches are similar to each other
4.1 All of these approaches have been researched and are useful for English
language learners. They are also useful for all learners.
4.1.1 They all focus on academic/content language and social language being
taught in a way that language is at the forefront of activities.
184.108.40.206 This happens through careful planning and meaningful
220.127.116.11.1 All explain how important building background knowledge is for
students before learning new information.
18.104.22.168.1.1 All explain that strategies must be taught to students and used to help guide their learning.
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 Use of graphic organizers is important for
mapping out thinking and remembering
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 All have assessment as an important key to instruction
184.108.40.206.1.1.2 Cooperative learning is important
5 Grammatical Based Approach
5.1 Teacher centered environment with focus
on rules and structure of language
5.1.1 The focus was more on reading and writing. It did
not focus on speaking and listening.
220.127.116.11 The students L1 is not valued and can not be used in the
18.104.22.168.1 Teacher provides drill and repetitive practice for the
22.214.171.124.1.1 Not much use for oral language because the focus is on
the grammatical skills
6.1 Herrera, S. G., & Murry, K. G. (2011). Mastering ESL and bilingual
methods: Differentiated instruction for culturally and linguistically
diverse (CLD) students (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
6.2 Chamot, A. U. (2009). The CALLA handbook: implementing the
cognitive academic language learning approach (2nd ed.). White
Plains, NY: Pearson, Longman.