Henry VII's reign: 1485-1509 FACTORS/Themes

Farnoush Islamzadeh
Mind Map by Farnoush Islamzadeh, updated more than 1 year ago
Farnoush Islamzadeh
Created by Farnoush Islamzadeh almost 6 years ago
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AS - Level History Mind Map on Henry VII's reign: 1485-1509 FACTORS/Themes, created by Farnoush Islamzadeh on 03/07/2016.

Resource summary

Henry VII's reign: 1485-1509 FACTORS/Themes
  1. Marriage and Children's marriage alliances
    1. Henry VIII succeed him to the throne in 1509.
      1. 1486 Marries Elizabeth of York and the two warring houses of Lancaster and York are reunited.
        1. 1486 Prince Arthur is born. 1489 - Treaty of Medina Del Campo 1501 Marriage of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon.
          1. 1503.Henry’s eldest daughter Margaret marries King James of Scotland.
          2. Nobility
            1. Evidence = 1st rewarded those who gave Henry support at and before battle of Bosworth (Aug 1485)
              1. - The Earl of Oxford = became major land owner in East Anglia.
                1. - Jasper Tudor was made Duke of Bedford, = was restored to his Welsh estates and = rewarded with extra land
                2. Others rewarded on basis of good service
                  1. - Edmund Dudley was a lawyer who became Henry’s right hand man
                    1. Giles, Lord Daubeney, -promoted to the peerage (if you become a peer you become a noble) AFTER showing his value in leading the royal forces against the Cornish Rebels in 1497.
                    2. negative
                      1. Henry reduced the number of major noble families = 35-50 nobles to 10-16 major nobles. = Henry is paranoid and has trust issues as his major nobles kept decreasing.
                        1. Henry became more suspicious of the nobility as his reign continued = 51 acts of attainder 1504-9
                          1. John de la Pole, Francis Lovell – nobles against Henry showing Henry had no control over the nobility.
                            1. Start of Edward Iv’s reign 42 peers, by the end 46. Start of Henry VII’s reign there were 50 then 35 by end – shows Henry had no control over the nobility because he had less peers than Edward IV which indicates he was struggling to deal with the nobility as well as being King.
                              1. Henry was never properly able to win over former Yorkists. As soon as a Yorkist alternative appeared these nobles switched allegiances e.g. the Lovell and Simnel plots.
                                1. Henry reduced the number of major nobles during his reign from 16 to 10 (Number of noble families reduced from 50-35).
                                  1. Executes Lord Stanley (Head of the Household) and Lord Fitzwalter, while he imprisons Sir Robert Clifford due to the three men’s involvement in the Warbeck plot.
                        2. positive
                          1. Act of Attainder – brought Henry money in. Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey and his father (John Howard, Duke of Norfolk) fought for Richard III at Bosworth. = father killed =, Howard > Henry attainted his lands and imprisoned him. After a few years Howard was released after taking an oath of allegiance’ process of reversal attainder started; restored to title of Earl of Surrey, put in charge of law and order; quelled (put an end to (a rebellion or other disorder), typically by the use of force.) Yorkshire rising for Henry = rewarded by Henry by returning the Howard estates back to him.
                            1. Bonds and recognisances – Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset, never trusted by Henry since his apparent support for Richard III in 1485 therefore had to transfer all of his land, gave a recognisance of £1,000 & find others who would give £10,000 on his behalf. = Dorset proved his loyalty to Henry & these agreements were cancelled. = the bonds and recognisances had served their purpose.
                              1. Henry reduced the number of major noble families = 35-50 nobles to 10-16 major nobles. = Henry is being wise as he is picking out nobles that he can truly rely on in order and control them rather than having many nobles and ending up losing control of them all. This way he can keep a close eye on everyone.
                                1. Start of Edward IV’s reign 42 peers, by the end 46. Start of Henry VII’s reign there were 50 then 35 by end  shows Henry had control over the nobility because he had less peers than Edward IV which indicates Henry successfully created a ‘service nobility’ who knew that their place in life was to serve the King.  Henry helped to get control of the nobility by limiting the number of new lords that were created. This was in direct contrast to Edward IV and Henry VIII where the nobility grew in size. Edward created 9 new earls but Henry only 3 – Rogers.
                      2. Foreign Policy
                        1. Negative
                          1. Edmund and Richard de la Pole – H.VII spent loads of money to buy him back. Henry not fully secure as they were alive by the time he died.
                            1. Margaret of Burgundy’s sheltering of Perkin Warbeck
                              1. King of France Louis Xii income - £800k but Henry's was £120k
                              2. Left out of Treaty of Cambrai 1509 by the major European powers France, Italy, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. – he set it out and then left out as he got isolated. It matters about his consildation however he' still safe
                              3. Positive
                                1. 1492, the French granted Henry a pension as part of the Treaty of Étaples. This was nothing more than payment to remove English troops from French soil. Henry received a payment of £159,000 and an annual pension of £5,000.
                                  1. Treaty of Medina del Campo 1489 – huge peace treaty with Spain. Henry’s son (Arthur) is married to Ferdinand’s daughter, Catherine.in 1502 = If Spain or England is attacked by France the other country will immediately intervene. Also, this treaty allows trade with Spain at rates very favourable to the English merchanrs – Henry an opportunist here.
                                    1. 1501 Treaty of Ayton - Big Treaty with Scotland Perpetual peace
                                      1. Henry’s eldest daughter Margaret marries King James of Scotland in 1503.
                                        1. Treaty of Cambrai . This was an alliance of France, The Holy Roman Empire and Spain against Italy. Henry left isolated However, the other major leaders express their support for Henry and do not challenge any of England’s interests.
                                          1. Henry received £5k per year from the French thanks to the Treaty of Etaples
                                        2. Finance
                                          1. Positive
                                            1. Henry’s total income was twenty times more than the wealthiest nobles LIKE WHO?
                                              1. Henry VII land revenues = £40,000. Custom duties - £40,000. which was much times greater than previous Kings such as Edward IV – LR – 20k, CD - £35km
                                                1. 36 out of 62 noble families had had some sort of bond, recognisances or fines
                                                  1. During H’s reign – 138 acts of attainders 42 reversed (92 not paid back)
                                                  2. Negative
                                                    1. After Edmund Dudley’s arrest in 1509 by Henry VIII, Dudley gave 84 cases where he believed that people had been forced to pay unfair, or totally made up, fines.
                                                      1. Custom duties 70k per annum in last twenty years of Edward IV. 40k annum under Henry VII.
                                                        1. Under Yorkist only one peer given more than one recognisance. But under H, 23 nobles paid 2 recognisances.
                                                          1. Henry gave the HRE Maximillian a total of between £250k - £300k to buy back Edmund de la Pole.
                                                        2. Rebellions
                                                          1. 1487- Imposture of Lambert Simnel and then he's defeated at the Battle of Stoke
                                                            1. 1491 beginning of imposture of Warbeck & 1497 surrender of Warbeck and 1499 Execution of of Perkin Warbeck = 8 years troubled by Warbeck
                                                              1. Warbeck is huge get more info to remember
                                                              2. 1497 Cornish Rebellion
                                                                1. 1489 - Rebellion in Yorkshire
                                                                  1. Lord Lovell and Stafford Brothers
                                                                    1. Sir William Stanley
                                                                    2. Government
                                                                      1. Tudor society was based around what was known as the 'The Great Chain of being' - meant that people from all ranks in society had to co-operate and that mere subjugation (to bring under complete control or subjection; conquer; master. ) of those below you was not acceptable. Those in a position of power and responsibility held that power for the good of everyone – not just to advance the well being of those of a similar standing.
                                                                        1. Positive
                                                                          1. There were 5 meetings of the Great Council during Henry VII’s reign > 1485, 1487, 1488, 1491, 1496 = at the start of the reign Henry had meetings with the Great Council but then for the remaining years of his reign he stopped having meetings with shows= Henry didn’t face any major problems after 1496 because Henry proved he could deal with them as he held no more meetings and successfully passed the throne to his son.
                                                                          2. Negative
                                                                            1. Local Government
                                                                              1. To establish full control over his kingdom, Henry VII had to establish his authority at a local level and especially on local government. At a local level both Henry and local magnates had a similar desire
                                                                                1. This arrangement worked when the kingdom was at peace. However, during the War of the Roses it completely broke down and after 1485 one of the major problems that faced Henry VII was asserting his authority at a local level after years of dislocation with regards to any form of authority.
                                                                              2. uneven control that the crown lm
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