1486 Marries Elizabeth of York and the two warring
houses of Lancaster and York are reunited.
1486 Prince Arthur is born. 1489 - Treaty of
Medina Del Campo 1501 Marriage of
Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon.
1503.Henry’s eldest daughter Margaret marries King
James of Scotland.
Evidence = 1st rewarded those who gave
Henry support at and before battle of
Bosworth (Aug 1485)
- The Earl of Oxford
= became major
land owner in East
- Jasper Tudor was made
Duke of Bedford, = was
restored to his Welsh estates
and = rewarded with extra
Others rewarded on basis of good service
- Edmund Dudley was a lawyer who
became Henry’s right hand man
Giles, Lord Daubeney, -promoted to the peerage (if you
become a peer you become a noble) AFTER showing his
value in leading the royal forces against the Cornish
Rebels in 1497.
Henry reduced the number of major noble families = 35-50 nobles
to 10-16 major nobles. = Henry is paranoid and has trust issues as
his major nobles kept decreasing.
Henry became more suspicious of the nobility as
his reign continued = 51 acts of attainder 1504-9
John de la Pole, Francis Lovell – nobles against Henry showing
Henry had no control over the nobility.
Start of Edward Iv’s reign 42 peers, by the end 46. Start of Henry
VII’s reign there were 50 then 35 by end – shows Henry had no
control over the nobility because he had less peers than Edward IV
which indicates he was struggling to deal with the nobility as well
as being King.
Henry was never properly able to win over former Yorkists. As soon as a
Yorkist alternative appeared these nobles switched allegiances e.g. the Lovell
and Simnel plots.
Henry reduced the number of major nobles during his reign from
16 to 10 (Number of noble families reduced from 50-35).
Executes Lord Stanley (Head of the Household) and Lord Fitzwalter,
while he imprisons Sir Robert Clifford due to the three men’s
involvement in the Warbeck plot.
Act of Attainder – brought Henry money in. Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey and his father (John
Howard, Duke of Norfolk) fought for Richard III at Bosworth. = father killed =, Howard > Henry
attainted his lands and imprisoned him. After a few years Howard was released after taking an
oath of allegiance’ process of reversal attainder started; restored to title of Earl of Surrey, put in
charge of law and order; quelled (put an end to (a rebellion or other disorder), typically by the
use of force.) Yorkshire rising for Henry = rewarded by Henry by returning the Howard estates
back to him.
Bonds and recognisances – Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset, never trusted by Henry since his
apparent support for Richard III in 1485 therefore had to transfer all of his land, gave a recognisance
of £1,000 & find others who would give £10,000 on his behalf. = Dorset proved his loyalty to Henry &
these agreements were cancelled. = the bonds and recognisances had served their purpose.
Henry reduced the number of major noble families = 35-50 nobles to 10-16 major
nobles. = Henry is being wise as he is picking out nobles that he can truly rely on in
order and control them rather than having many nobles and ending up losing control
of them all. This way he can keep a close eye on everyone.
Start of Edward IV’s reign 42 peers, by the end 46. Start of Henry VII’s reign there were 50 then 35 by
end shows Henry had control over the nobility because he had less peers than Edward IV which
indicates Henry successfully created a ‘service nobility’ who knew that their place in life was to serve
the King. Henry helped to get control of the nobility by limiting the number of new lords that were
created. This was in direct contrast to Edward IV and Henry VIII where the nobility grew in size.
Edward created 9 new earls but Henry only 3 – Rogers.
Edmund and Richard de la Pole – H.VII spent loads of money to buy him back.
Henry not fully secure as they were alive by the time he died.
Margaret of Burgundy’s sheltering of Perkin Warbeck
King of France Louis Xii income - £800k but Henry's was £120k
Left out of Treaty of Cambrai 1509 by the major European powers France, Italy, Spain and
the Holy Roman Empire. – he set it out and then left out as he got isolated. It matters about
his consildation however he' still safe
1492, the French granted Henry a pension as part of
the Treaty of Étaples. This was nothing more than
payment to remove English troops from French soil.
Henry received a payment of £159,000 and an annual
pension of £5,000.
Treaty of Medina del Campo 1489 – huge peace treaty with Spain. Henry’s son
(Arthur) is married to Ferdinand’s daughter, Catherine.in 1502 = If Spain or England
is attacked by France the other country will immediately intervene. Also, this treaty
allows trade with Spain at rates very favourable to the English merchanrs – Henry an
1501 Treaty of Ayton - Big Treaty with Scotland Perpetual peace
Henry’s eldest daughter Margaret marries King James of Scotland in 1503.
Treaty of Cambrai . This was an alliance of France, The Holy Roman Empire and Spain against Italy.
Henry left isolated However, the other major leaders express their support for Henry and do not
challenge any of England’s interests.
Henry received £5k per year from the French thanks to the Treaty of Etaples
Henry’s total income was twenty
times more than the wealthiest
nobles LIKE WHO?
Henry VII land revenues = £40,000.
Custom duties - £40,000. which was much
times greater than previous Kings such as
Edward IV – LR – 20k, CD - £35km
36 out of 62 noble families had had some
sort of bond, recognisances or fines
During H’s reign – 138 acts of attainders 42
reversed (92 not paid back)
After Edmund Dudley’s arrest in 1509 by Henry VIII,
Dudley gave 84 cases where he believed that people
had been forced to pay unfair, or totally made up,
Custom duties 70k per annum in last twenty years of Edward
IV. 40k annum under Henry VII.
Under Yorkist only one peer given more than one recognisance.
But under H, 23 nobles paid 2 recognisances.
Henry gave the HRE Maximillian a total of between £250k - £300k to
buy back Edmund de la Pole.
1487- Imposture of Lambert Simnel and
then he's defeated at the Battle of Stoke
1491 beginning of imposture of Warbeck & 1497 surrender of
Warbeck and 1499 Execution of of Perkin Warbeck = 8 years
troubled by Warbeck
Warbeck is huge get more info to remember
1497 Cornish Rebellion
1489 - Rebellion in Yorkshire
Lord Lovell and Stafford Brothers
Sir William Stanley
Tudor society was based around what was known as the 'The Great Chain of being' - meant that
people from all ranks in society had to co-operate and that mere subjugation (to bring under
complete control or subjection; conquer; master. ) of those below you was not acceptable. Those in a
position of power and responsibility held that power for the good of everyone – not just to advance
the well being of those of a similar standing.
There were 5 meetings of the Great Council during Henry VII’s reign > 1485, 1487, 1488,
1491, 1496 = at the start of the reign Henry had meetings with the Great Council but
then for the remaining years of his reign he stopped having meetings with shows=
Henry didn’t face any major problems after 1496 because Henry proved he could deal
with them as he held no more meetings and successfully passed the throne to his son.
To establish full control over his kingdom, Henry VII had to
establish his authority at a local level and especially on local
government. At a local level both Henry and local magnates
had a similar desire
This arrangement worked when the kingdom was at
peace. However, during the War of the Roses it
completely broke down and after 1485 one of the major
problems that faced Henry VII was asserting his
authority at a local level after years of dislocation with
regards to any form of authority.