The sounds of language: Phonetics

Alexia Romero
Mind Map by Alexia Romero, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexia Romero
Created by Alexia Romero about 4 years ago
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Advanced placement Introduction to Linguistics Mind Map on The sounds of language: Phonetics, created by Alexia Romero on 03/12/2016.

Resource summary

The sounds of language: Phonetics
1 Acoustic
1.1 Physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air
2 Forensic
2.1 Identifying the speaker by analyzing his pronunciation, accent, etc.
3 Articulatory
3.1 How the speech sounds are made
4 The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds
5 Sounds
5.1 Consonants
5.1.1 Voicing
5.1.1.1 Voiceless
5.1.1.1.1 The vocal folds don't vibrate
5.1.1.1.1.1 [p], [f], [θ], [h], [t], [s], [ʃ], [ʧ]
5.1.1.2 Voiced
5.1.1.2.1 The vocal folds vibrate
5.1.1.2.1.1 [b], [m], [w], [v], [ð], [d], [z], [n], [l], [r], [ʒ], [ʤ], [j], [g], [ŋ]
5.1.2 The place of articulation
5.1.2.1 Where the sounds are articulated in the vocal organs
5.1.2.2 Bilabials
5.1.2.2.1 The two lips touch to create this sound
5.1.2.2.1.1 [p], [b], [m]
5.1.2.3 Labiodentals
5.1.2.3.1 Upper teeth, and lower lip touch for these sounds
5.1.2.3.1.1 [f], [v]
5.1.2.4 Dentals
5.1.2.4.1 The tip of the tongue goes behind the upper front teeth
5.1.2.4.1.1 [θ], [ð]
5.1.2.5 Alveolars
5.1.2.5.1 Sounds formed with the front part of the tongue and alveolar ridge
5.1.2.5.1.1 [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], [r]
5.1.2.6 Alveolo-palatal
5.1.2.6.1 Sounds formed with the tongue at the very front of the palate, near the alveolar ridge
5.1.2.6.1.1 [ʃ], [ʧ], [ʒ], [ʤ], [j]
5.1.2.7 Velars
5.1.2.7.1 You put the back of the tongue, against the velum
5.1.2.7.1.1 [ŋ], [w], [k], [g]
5.1.2.8 Glottal
5.1.2.8.1 Sound formed with the tongue and other parts of the mouth
5.1.2.8.1.1 [h]
5.1.3 The manner of articulation
5.1.3.1 How the sounds are articulated.
5.1.3.2 Stops / Plosives
5.1.3.2.1 Stop the airstream, and let it go abruptly
5.1.3.2.1.1 [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [ɡ]
5.1.3.3 Fricatives
5.1.3.3.1 Almost blocking he airstream
5.1.3.3.1.1 [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [ʃ], [ʒ], [h]
5.1.3.4 Affricates
5.1.3.4.1 Briefly stopping the airstream, and causing friction when releasing it
5.1.3.4.1.1 [ʧ], [ʤ].
5.1.3.5 Nasal
5.1.3.5.1 The airstream flows through the nose
5.1.3.5.1.1 [m], [n], [ŋ],
5.1.3.6 Approximants
5.1.3.6.1 Glides
5.1.3.6.1.1 Voiced sounds. The tongue moves from or to the position of a vowel.
5.1.3.6.1.1.1 [w], [j]
5.1.3.6.2 Liquids
5.1.3.6.2.1 Voiced sounds. The air flows around the sides of the tongue, and the tip touches the middle of the alveolar ridge
5.1.3.6.2.1.1 [l], [r]
5.1.3.7 Glottal stops
5.1.3.7.1 The glottis gets completely closed, and then opened
5.1.3.7.1.1 Oh oh! Uh-uh
5.1.3.8 Flap
5.1.3.8.1 The tongue tip taps the alveolar ridge for a short moment
5.1.3.8.1.1 Represented as [D], [ɾ].
5.1.3.8.1.1.1 Used in words such as ladder, latter, medal, metal, writer, rider
5.2 Vowels
5.2.1 Diphthongs
5.2.1.1
5.2.2 Front/Central/Back
5.2.2.1
5.2.3 High/Mid/Low
5.2.3.1
6 Auditory
6.1 How speech sounds are received by the ear.
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