The sounds of language: Phonetics

Alexia Romero
Mind Map by Alexia Romero, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexia Romero
Created by Alexia Romero about 4 years ago


Advanced placement Introduction to Linguistics Mind Map on The sounds of language: Phonetics, created by Alexia Romero on 03/12/2016.

Resource summary

The sounds of language: Phonetics
1 Acoustic
1.1 Physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air
2 Forensic
2.1 Identifying the speaker by analyzing his pronunciation, accent, etc.
3 Articulatory
3.1 How the speech sounds are made
4 The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds
5 Sounds
5.1 Consonants
5.1.1 Voicing Voiceless The vocal folds don't vibrate [p], [f], [θ], [h], [t], [s], [ʃ], [ʧ] Voiced The vocal folds vibrate [b], [m], [w], [v], [ð], [d], [z], [n], [l], [r], [ʒ], [ʤ], [j], [g], [ŋ]
5.1.2 The place of articulation Where the sounds are articulated in the vocal organs Bilabials The two lips touch to create this sound [p], [b], [m] Labiodentals Upper teeth, and lower lip touch for these sounds [f], [v] Dentals The tip of the tongue goes behind the upper front teeth [θ], [ð] Alveolars Sounds formed with the front part of the tongue and alveolar ridge [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], [r] Alveolo-palatal Sounds formed with the tongue at the very front of the palate, near the alveolar ridge [ʃ], [ʧ], [ʒ], [ʤ], [j] Velars You put the back of the tongue, against the velum [ŋ], [w], [k], [g] Glottal Sound formed with the tongue and other parts of the mouth [h]
5.1.3 The manner of articulation How the sounds are articulated. Stops / Plosives Stop the airstream, and let it go abruptly [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [ɡ] Fricatives Almost blocking he airstream [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [ʃ], [ʒ], [h] Affricates Briefly stopping the airstream, and causing friction when releasing it [ʧ], [ʤ]. Nasal The airstream flows through the nose [m], [n], [ŋ], Approximants Glides Voiced sounds. The tongue moves from or to the position of a vowel. [w], [j] Liquids Voiced sounds. The air flows around the sides of the tongue, and the tip touches the middle of the alveolar ridge [l], [r] Glottal stops The glottis gets completely closed, and then opened Oh oh! Uh-uh Flap The tongue tip taps the alveolar ridge for a short moment Represented as [D], [ɾ]. Used in words such as ladder, latter, medal, metal, writer, rider
5.2 Vowels
5.2.1 Diphthongs
5.2.2 Front/Central/Back
5.2.3 High/Mid/Low
6 Auditory
6.1 How speech sounds are received by the ear.
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