Sociology class differences in achievement (External Factors)

Chloe Woolner
Mind Map by Chloe Woolner, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Woolner
Created by Chloe Woolner about 4 years ago
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Mind Map on Sociology class differences in achievement (External Factors), created by Chloe Woolner on 03/21/2016.

Resource summary

Sociology class differences in achievement (External Factors)
1 Cultral Deprivation
1.1 Primary Socialisation in the family is needed for basic skills, values and attitudes
1.1.1 'Cultral Equipment' includes things such as language, self-discipline and reasoning skills
1.2 Many working class families fail to socialise their children adequately. They lack the cultral equipment needed to do well in school
1.2.1 3 main aspects of cultral deprivation: language, parents education and working-class subculture
1.3 Material Deprivation
1.3.1 refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income. money problems in the family are significant to attendance in school. children excluded from school are unlikely to return to mainstream education. nearly 90% of failing schools are in deprived areas
1.3.2 Housing
1.3.2.1 overcrowding can have a direct effect by making it harder for children to study. means less room for educational activities, no where to do homework, disturbed sleep from sharing beds and bedrooms
1.3.2.2 development can become impaired through lack of space for safe play and exploration. temporary accommodation means more movement and changing of schools constantly
1.3.2.3 cold or damp housing can cause health problems. families in temporary housing can cause psychological distress
1.3.3 diet and health
1.3.3.1 young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. poor nutrition affects health and means more absences from school.
1.3.3.2 Children from poorer homes are more likely to have emotional or behavioural problems
1.3.3.3 children from low income families were more likely to engage in 'externalising' behavious such as fighting which can disrupt schooling
1.3.4 Financial support and costs of education
1.3.4.1 lack of financial support means that children from poor families have to do without equipment and miss out on experiences that would enhance their educational achievement
1.3.4.2 poor children may have to make do with hand- me downs and cheaper but unfashionable equipment and this may result in being isolated or bullying.
1.3.4.2.1 lack of funds also means that children from low income families often need to work. children in poverty take on jobs such as baby sitting, cleaning and paper rounds and this has a negative impact on school work
1.3.4.3 Fear of Debt
1.3.4.3.1 attitudes towards debt may deter working class students from going to university. more costs than benefits going to university
1.3.4.3.2 working class students who go to university are likely to recieve less financial support from their families
1.3.4.3.2.1 more likely to apply to ones that are closer to home so they could live at home and save on travel costs but this gave them less oppurtunity to go to the higher status universities
2 Language
2.1 Hubbs-Tait found that where parents use language that challenges their children to evaluate their own understanding or abilities, cognitive performance improves
2.1.1 educated parents are more likely to use language in this way
2.1.1.1 Educated parents more likely to praise
2.2 less educated parents tend o use language in ways that only require children to make simple descriptive statements
2.3 Speech codes
2.3.1 The restricted code:
2.3.1.1 used by the working class, limited vocabulary, short, unfinished, ungrammatical sentence. Speech is predictable and may involve only a single word. descriptive not analytic. context bound
2.3.2 The Elaborated Code
2.3.2.1 used by the middle class. wider vocabulary, longer grammatically correct complex sentences. speech is more varied. context free speech, spell out their meanings to the listener
2.3.3 these differences in speech code give middle class children an advantage at school and put working class children at a disadvantage . The elaborated code is the language used by teachers, textbooks and exams.
2.3.3.1 Early socialisation into the elaborated code means that middle class children are already fluent users of the code when they start school. working class children lacking the code are likely to feel excluded and to be less successful
2.3.3.1.1 Bernstein argues that working class pupils fail because schools fail to teach them how to use the elaborated code
3 Parents Education
3.1 working class parents placed less value on education, they are less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragement and took less interest. they visited schools less often and were less likely to discuss their childrens progress with teachers
3.2 parenting Style
3.2.1 Educated parents parenting style emphasises consistent discipline and high expectations of their children, encourages active learning and exploration
3.2.2 less educated parents parentling style is marked by harsh or inconsistent discipline. prevents the child from learning independance and self control, leading to poorer motivation at school and problems interacting with teachers
3.3 parents educational behaviours
3.3.1 educated parents are more aware of what is needed to assist their childrens educational progress
3.3.1.1 better able to get expert advice on childrearing, more successful in establishing good relationships with teachers and better at guiding their childrens interactions with school
3.3.1.1.1 also recognise the educational value of activities such as visits to museums and libraries
3.4 use of income
3.4.1 better educated parents tend to have higher incomes but they also spend their income in ways that promote their childrens educational success
3.4.1.1 educated parents have a better understanding of nutrition and its importance in child development and a higher income to buy more nutritious food
3.4.2 middle class mothers are more likely to biuy educational toys, books and activities that encourage reasoning skills and stimulate intellectual development
3.4.3 working class homes are more likely to lack these resources and this means children from such homes start school without the intellectual skills needed to progress
3.5 class, income and parental education
3.5.1 middle class parents tend to be better educated. parental education has an influence on childrens achievement, regardless of class and income.
3.5.1.1 not all children of working class parents do equally badly and why not all children from middle class families are equally successful
4 working class subculture
4.1 lack of parental interest in their childrens education reflects the subcultral values of the working class
4.2 a subculture is a group whose attitudes and values differ from those of mainstream culture
4.3 working class subculture has 4 key features that act as a barrier to educational achievement
4.3.1 FATALISM: a belief in fate. contrasts with middle class values
4.3.1.1 COLLECTIVISM: valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
4.3.1.1.1 IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION: seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifies in order to get rewards in the future
4.3.1.1.1.1 PRESENT- TIME ORIENTATION: seeing the present as more important than the future and so not having long-term goals or plans
4.4 Compensatory education
4.4.1 aim to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to schools and communities in deprived areas
5 Cultral Capital
5.1 refer to knowledge , attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class
5.1.1 middle class culture as a type of capital because it give an advantage to those who possess it. middle class aquire the ability to grasp, analsye and develop intellectual interests and an understanding of what the education system requires for success
5.2 middle class children an advantage in school where these abilites and interests are highly valued
5.3 working class children find that school devalues their culture as rough and inferior. their lack of cultral capital leads them to exam failure. may working class pupils also get the message that education is not meant for them and respond by truanting, early leaving or not trying
5.4 educational and economic capital
5.4.1 wealthier parents can convert their economic capital into educational capital by sending their children to private schools
5.4.1.1 'selection by mortage' because it drives up the cost of houses near to successful schools and excludes working-class families
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