Germany (1918-1945)

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Germany (1918-1945)
1 The Impacts od the First World War
1.1 In 1914 germans were proud people ´cause they have the finest in the World
1.1.1 Four years later
1.1.1.1 Germany got a different picture, they were destroyed much of the Old Germany. Their army was defeated
1.1.1.1.1 They survived on turnips and bread
1.1.1.1.2 Also it spread abig epidemic that killed thousand people
1.1.1.1.3 How did Germany emerge from defeat in the Fist World War?
1.1.1.1.3.1 Ebert took over in Germany in 1918. He faced lot of challenges
1.1.1.1.3.1.1 Social Challenges
1.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 War left 600.000 widows and 2 million children without fathers
1.1.1.1.3.1.1.2 There were huge gaps between the living standards of the rich and the poor
1.1.1.1.3.1.2 Political Challenges
1.1.1.1.3.1.2.1 Many ex-soldiers and civilians despised the new democratic leaders and came to believe that the heroic leader Fleid Marshal had been betrayed by weak politicians
1.1.1.1.3.1.2.2 Geramany had a revolution and became an unstable democratic republic
1.1.1.1.3.1.3 Economic Challenges
1.1.1.1.3.1.3.1 National income was about one-third of what it had been in 1913
1.1.1.1.3.1.3.2 Industrial production was about two-thirds of what it had been in 1913
1.1.1.1.3.1.4 The impacts of World War
1.1.1.1.3.1.4.1 German workers were bitter at the restrictions placed on their earning during the war while the factory owners made vast fortunes from the war
1.1.1.1.3.1.4.2 During the war women were called up to work in factories
2 The Republic in Danger (1919-1922)
2.1 The Treaty of Versailles
2.1.1 New crisis came in May 1919 when this treaty was announced
2.1.1.1 Summary of what Germany lost as a consequence of this treaty
2.1.1.1.1 .10 per cent of its land-. All of its overseas colonies-.12.5 per cent of population-.16 per cent of its coal and 48 per cent of its iron industry-.Its army was reduced to 100.00;it wasn´t allowed to have an air force;its navy was reduced-.Germany had to accept blame for starting the war and was forced to pay reparation.
2.2 Ebert´s government faced violent opposition from both left-wing and right-wing opponents
2.2.1 The Threat from the Left
2.2.1.1 One Left group was a Communist party known as the Spartactits
2.2.1.1.1 Led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg
2.2.1.1.2 They argued strongly against Elbert´s plans for a democratic Germany they wanted Germany rules by workers´councils or soviets
2.2.1.1.3 Some Anti-Communist ex-soldiers had formed themselves into vigilante groups called Freikorps. Ebert made an agreement with them and the commanders of the army to put down the rebelion
2.2.1.1.3.1 The Freikorps won. Liebknchet and Luxemburg were murdered and this Communist revolution had failed
3 The birth of weimar Republic
3.1 In 1918 the allies won
3.1.1 Germany was in chaos
3.1.2 They offered Germany peace by strict conditions
3.2 On November 1918 the Kaiser abdicated and left Germany for the Netherlands
3.2.1 Elbert became the new leader of the Republic of Germany
3.2.1.1 Had opposition
3.2.1.1.1 Left
3.2.1.1.1.1 There were communists who believed that at this stage what Germany actualy needed was a communist revolution just like Russia's in 1917
3.2.1.1.2 Nearly the Kaiser's former advisers remained in their position in the army, judiciary, civil service and industry
3.2.1.1.3 Right
3.2.1.1.4 Despite the opposition in January 1919 free elections took place and Elbert's won a majority and he became the president of the Weimar Republic
3.2.1.1.4.1 It was called like this because the new government met in a small town of Weimar
3.2.1.2 He signed and armistice with the Allies
3.2.1.3 He also announced to the German people that the new Republic was giving for freedom of speech, freedom of workship and better working conditions.
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