2 BECKER - social groups create
deviance by creating rules &
applying them to particular
people whom they label as
3 An act or person only
becomes deviant when
labelled by others as
4 DIFFERENTIAL ENFORCEMENT
4.1 Labelling theorists argue that
social control agencies (police,
courts etc) tend to label certain
groups as criminal.
4.2 PILIAVIN & BRIAR found police decisions to arrest were
based on stereotypical ideas about manner, dress,
gender, class, ethnicity, time & place.
5.1 CICOUREL argues that police use typifications of the
'typical delinquent'. Individuals fiiting the typification
are more likely to be stopped, arrested & charged.
5.1.1 Working-class & ethnic minority
juveniles are more likely to be
arrested. Once arrested, those from
broken homes etc are more likely to be
5.1.2 Middle-class juveniles are
less likely to fit the
typification, & have parents
who can negotiate
successfully on their behalf.
They are less likely to be
6 CRIME STATISTICS: A TOPIC NOT A RESOURCE
6.1 Working-class people fit police typifications,
so police patrol working-class areas,
resulting in more working-class arrests.
6.1.1 Thus crime statistics recorded by the police do not give a valid picture of crime patterns.
6.2 CICOUREL argues that we cannot take crime statistics at
face value or use them as a resource. We should treat them
as a topic & investigate the processes by which they are
7 THE EFFECTS OF LABELLING
7.1 Labelling theorists are interesting in the effects of labelling.
7.1.1 LEMERT argues that by labelling certain people
as deviant, society actually encourages them to
become more so societal reaction causes
7.2 PRIMARY DEVIANCE
7.2.1 Deviant acts that have not been
publicly labelled. They have many
causes which are often trivial &
mostly go uncaught. Those who
commit them do not usually see
themselves as deviant.
7.3 SECONDARY DEVIANCE
7.3.1 Results from societal reaction (e.g.
from labelling someone as an offender)
can involve stigmatising & excluding
them from normal society. Others may
see the offender solely in terms of the
label, which becomes the individual's
master status or controlling identity.
8 SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
8.1 Being labelled may provoke a crisis for the individual's
self-concept & lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy in
which they live up to the label, resulting in secondary
8.1.1 Further societal reaction may reinforce the
individual's outsiders status & lead to them
joining a deviant subculture that offers support,
role models & a deviant career.
8.2 YOUNG'S study of hippy marijuana users illustrate these processes.
8.2.1 Drug use was initially peripheral to the hippies' lifestyle (primary
deviance), but police persecution of them as junkies (societal
reaction) led them to retreat into closed groups, developing a
deviant subculture where drug use became a central activity
8.2.2 The control processes aimed
at producing law-abiding
behaviour thus produced the
9 DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION SPIRAL
9.1 In a deviance amplification
spiral, the attempt to
control deviance leads to it
increasing rather than
decreasing - resulting in
greater attempts to control
it &, in turn, yet more
deviance, in an escalating
spiral, as w/ the hippies
described by YOUNG.
9.2 Folk devils & moral panics: COHEN'S study of the
mods & rockers uses the concept of deviance
9.3 Media exaggeration & distortion began a moral panic, w/ growing
9.3.1 Moral entrepreneurs called for a 'crackdown'. Police
responded by arresting more youths, provoking more
126.96.36.199 Demonising the mods & rockers
as 'folk devils' marginalised them
further, resulting in more
10 FUNCTIONALISTS see deviance producing social
control, LABELLING THEORISTS see control producing
11 CRITICISMS OF LABELLING THEORY
11.1 Accused of being too deterministic of
assuming that once labelled, a self-fulfilling
prophecy is inevitable.
11.2 Fails to explain why people commit
primary deviance in the first place
before they are labelled.
11.3 MARXISTS criticise it for failing to locate the
origin of such labels in the unequal structure of