Music Concepts

Rosie:)
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

SQA Advanced Higher Music Mind Map on Music Concepts, created by Rosie:) on 01/26/2014.

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Rosie:)
Created by Rosie:) over 5 years ago
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Music Concepts
1 Renaissance (1450 - 1600)
1.1 Vocal
1.1.1 Sacred
1.1.1.1 Plainchants: no accomp, Catholic, no regular time metre, organum
1.1.1.1.1 (organum: two parts moving together, the same distance apart)
1.1.1.2 Mass: polyphonic, Catholic, Latin, Kyrie etc
1.1.1.3 Motet: polyphonic, Latin, no Kyrie etc
1.1.1.4 Anthem: like a Motet but in English, a capella or with an organ accomp
1.1.2 Secular
1.1.2.1 Madrigal: several voices, through composed, polyphonic, word-painting
1.1.2.2 Ballett: strophic, 'fa la la', more homophonic than madrigal
1.1.2.3 Ayre/Air: simple melody, solo with accomp or voices (harmony) with no accomp
1.2 Instrumental
1.2.1 Pavan: dance, steady, 2 beats in a bar
1.2.2 Galliard: dance, lively, 3 beats in a bar
1.3 General Sound
1.3.1 modal but a few accidentals, rich, harmony and imitation, textures blending
2 Baroque (1600 - 1750)
2.1 Vocal
2.1.1 Sacred
2.1.1.1 Oratorio: large, vocals & instruments, like an opera
2.1.1.2 Cantata: small oratorio, closes with chorale
2.1.1.3 Chorale: hymn tune, German, SATB, homophonic
2.1.1.4 Passion: German, about crucifixion
2.1.2 Secular
2.1.2.1 Opera: recitatives, arias, choruses
2.1.2.2 Recitative: sung/speech, story telling, accomp
2.1.2.3 Aria: song
2.1.2.3.1 Da Capo Aria: ABA ternary, 2nd A singer decorates
2.1.2.4 (recitatives etc also in sacred - oratorio)
2.2 Instrumental
2.2.1 Concerto Grosso: large, concertino, ripieno, antiphonal
2.2.2 Concerto: solo with orchestral accomp, ritornello
2.2.3 Chaconne/Passacaglia: dances, variation ground bass
2.2.4 Fugue, 3 or 4 parts, imitation, contrapuntal
2.2.4.1 1) Subject: main theme, tonic key
2.2.4.2 2) Answer: imitation of main theme, dominant key
2.2.4.2.1 Real Answer: note for note transposition of the subject
2.2.4.2.2 Tonal Answer: intervals altered to avoid dissonance
2.2.4.3 3) Episodes: subject not played
2.2.4.4 Stretto: voices/instruments enter v. quickly one after the other
2.2.5 Oveture: short intro
2.2.5.1 Italian Overture: 3 movements. fast slow fast, often trumpet
2.2.5.2 French Overture: 2 movements, slow to fast, 2 beats to 3, sometimes slows again
2.2.6 Suite
2.2.6.1 Allemande: 4/4, moderate
2.2.6.1.1 Courante: 3/2 or 6/4, quite fast
2.2.6.1.1.1 Saraband: 2nd beat emphasised, triple time
2.2.6.1.1.1.1 Gigue: 3/4or 6/8 or 9/8, moderate/fast
2.2.6.1.1.1.1.1 Minuet: triple metre, moderate
2.2.6.1.1.1.1.1.1 Bourree: 2/4, lively
2.2.7 Prelude: instrumental, intro
2.2.7.1 Chorale Prelude: short, organ, intro for congregation singing
2.3 General Sound
2.3.1 polyphonic, major & minor, ornaments
3 Classical (1750 - 1820)
3.1 Sonata: solo piano or solo inst. and piano
3.2 Sonata Form
3.2.1 Exposition: 2 contrasting themes
3.2.1.1 Development: ideas developed
3.2.1.1.1 Recapitulation: repeats exposition with slight changes
3.2.1.1.1.1 Coda: end, fancy
3.3 Scherzo: joke, lively, quick
3.4 Requiem Mass: mass for the dead
3.5 General Sound
3.5.1 more homophonic than Baroque, dynamics, bigger orchestra
4 Romantic (1810 - 1910)
4.1 Instrumental
4.1.1 Programme Music: tells a story
4.1.1.1 Symphonic/Tone Poem: orchestral, based on a story
4.1.1.1.1 Nationalist: patriotic, traditional/folk elements
4.1.1.1.1.1 Late Romantic: Huge scale choirs/orchestras
4.2 Vocal
4.2.1 Lied: solo voice & piano, both equally important, German
4.2.1.1 Song Cycle: a group of songs linked by common theme or same composer, piano or ensemble or orchestral accomp
4.2.1.1.1 Spechgesang: weird, speech song
4.2.1.1.1.1 (also instrumental) Leitmotiv: musical idea/theme that represents a character
4.3 General Sound
4.3.1 intensely emotional with dramatic contrasts
5 20th Century
5.1 Impressionism: whole tone scales, dreamy
5.1.1 Jazz Influence: syncopation, blues notes, muted brass
5.1.1.1 Jazz Funk: jazz improv, solos & riffs, funk, R & B, soul
5.1.1.1.1 Atonality: no key, tuneless
5.1.1.1.1.1 Serialism: 12 numbered notes of chromatic scale (tone row), transposed inverted or played in retrograde but always in the same order
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 Neo-Classicism: classical style with more dissonance etc
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Musique Concrete: natural sounds transformed
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Aleatory Music: disorganised, sections played in what order the performers choose (individually)
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Minimalism: simple 'tune' constantly repeated with slight variation
6 Melodic
6.1 Harmonic Minor: regular minor scale
6.1.1 Melodic Minor: played differently on the way down
6.1.1.1 Microtone: smaller than a semi-tone
6.1.1.1.1 Tritone: interval of augmented 4th eg C to F
6.1.1.1.1.1 Ornaments
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 Mordent: 3 notes, main above main or main below main
6.1.1.1.1.1.2 Turn: 4 notes, above main below main or vice versa
6.1.1.1.1.1.3 Appoggiatura: sounds podgy, takes up 1/2 note value
6.1.1.1.1.1.4 Acciaccatura: sounds crushed, v. quick
7 Harmonic
7.1 Plagal Cadence: sounds finished, 'amen'
7.1.1 Interrupted Cadence: not finished
7.2 Added 6th: 6th note added to normal chord, jazz music
7.3 Dominant 7th: needs to be resolved
7.4 Diminished Chord: beginning of 'I Will Survive'
7.5 Major 7th: jazzy, dreamy
7.6 Augmented Chord: not used to sound, slightly dissonant, needs to go somewhere
8 Rythmic
8.1 Irregular Metres: frequent change in time signature, accents in different places
8.2 Three Against Two: triplets vs quavers
8.3 Hemiola: classical, impression of change from duple to triple time or vice versa
8.4 Augmentation: lengthening note value, music sounds slower
8.5 Diminution: shortening note value, music seems quicker
9 Structural
9.1 Basso Continuo: Baroque bass line, cello bassoon bass etc
9.1.1 Ritornello: little return
9.1.1.1 Antiphonal: sort of call and response
9.1.1.1.1 Inversion: music is mirroredeg treble clef C E D to bass clef C B A
9.1.1.1.1.1 Retrograde: goes backwards
9.1.1.1.1.1.1 Retrograde Inversion: backwards and upside down
10 Timbre
10.1 Concertino: small group of instruments, Baroque
10.1.1 Consort: small group of instruments from the same family (eg viols), renaissance
10.1.1.1 Coloratura: scales, runs and ornaments by a singer
10.1.1.1.1 Harmonics: v. high note on string instruments
10.1.1.1.1.1 Cadenza: soloists 'showing off' in a concerto with no accomp

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