Music Concepts

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

SQA Advanced Higher Music Mind Map on Music Concepts, created by Rosie:) on 01/26/2014.

Created by Rosie:) over 5 years ago
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Music Concepts
1 Renaissance (1450 - 1600)
1.1 Vocal
1.1.1 Sacred Plainchants: no accomp, Catholic, no regular time metre, organum (organum: two parts moving together, the same distance apart) Mass: polyphonic, Catholic, Latin, Kyrie etc Motet: polyphonic, Latin, no Kyrie etc Anthem: like a Motet but in English, a capella or with an organ accomp
1.1.2 Secular Madrigal: several voices, through composed, polyphonic, word-painting Ballett: strophic, 'fa la la', more homophonic than madrigal Ayre/Air: simple melody, solo with accomp or voices (harmony) with no accomp
1.2 Instrumental
1.2.1 Pavan: dance, steady, 2 beats in a bar
1.2.2 Galliard: dance, lively, 3 beats in a bar
1.3 General Sound
1.3.1 modal but a few accidentals, rich, harmony and imitation, textures blending
2 Baroque (1600 - 1750)
2.1 Vocal
2.1.1 Sacred Oratorio: large, vocals & instruments, like an opera Cantata: small oratorio, closes with chorale Chorale: hymn tune, German, SATB, homophonic Passion: German, about crucifixion
2.1.2 Secular Opera: recitatives, arias, choruses Recitative: sung/speech, story telling, accomp Aria: song Da Capo Aria: ABA ternary, 2nd A singer decorates (recitatives etc also in sacred - oratorio)
2.2 Instrumental
2.2.1 Concerto Grosso: large, concertino, ripieno, antiphonal
2.2.2 Concerto: solo with orchestral accomp, ritornello
2.2.3 Chaconne/Passacaglia: dances, variation ground bass
2.2.4 Fugue, 3 or 4 parts, imitation, contrapuntal 1) Subject: main theme, tonic key 2) Answer: imitation of main theme, dominant key Real Answer: note for note transposition of the subject Tonal Answer: intervals altered to avoid dissonance 3) Episodes: subject not played Stretto: voices/instruments enter v. quickly one after the other
2.2.5 Oveture: short intro Italian Overture: 3 movements. fast slow fast, often trumpet French Overture: 2 movements, slow to fast, 2 beats to 3, sometimes slows again
2.2.6 Suite Allemande: 4/4, moderate Courante: 3/2 or 6/4, quite fast Saraband: 2nd beat emphasised, triple time Gigue: 3/4or 6/8 or 9/8, moderate/fast Minuet: triple metre, moderate Bourree: 2/4, lively
2.2.7 Prelude: instrumental, intro Chorale Prelude: short, organ, intro for congregation singing
2.3 General Sound
2.3.1 polyphonic, major & minor, ornaments
3 Classical (1750 - 1820)
3.1 Sonata: solo piano or solo inst. and piano
3.2 Sonata Form
3.2.1 Exposition: 2 contrasting themes Development: ideas developed Recapitulation: repeats exposition with slight changes Coda: end, fancy
3.3 Scherzo: joke, lively, quick
3.4 Requiem Mass: mass for the dead
3.5 General Sound
3.5.1 more homophonic than Baroque, dynamics, bigger orchestra
4 Romantic (1810 - 1910)
4.1 Instrumental
4.1.1 Programme Music: tells a story Symphonic/Tone Poem: orchestral, based on a story Nationalist: patriotic, traditional/folk elements Late Romantic: Huge scale choirs/orchestras
4.2 Vocal
4.2.1 Lied: solo voice & piano, both equally important, German Song Cycle: a group of songs linked by common theme or same composer, piano or ensemble or orchestral accomp Spechgesang: weird, speech song (also instrumental) Leitmotiv: musical idea/theme that represents a character
4.3 General Sound
4.3.1 intensely emotional with dramatic contrasts
5 20th Century
5.1 Impressionism: whole tone scales, dreamy
5.1.1 Jazz Influence: syncopation, blues notes, muted brass Jazz Funk: jazz improv, solos & riffs, funk, R & B, soul Atonality: no key, tuneless Serialism: 12 numbered notes of chromatic scale (tone row), transposed inverted or played in retrograde but always in the same order Neo-Classicism: classical style with more dissonance etc Musique Concrete: natural sounds transformed Aleatory Music: disorganised, sections played in what order the performers choose (individually) Minimalism: simple 'tune' constantly repeated with slight variation
6 Melodic
6.1 Harmonic Minor: regular minor scale
6.1.1 Melodic Minor: played differently on the way down Microtone: smaller than a semi-tone Tritone: interval of augmented 4th eg C to F Ornaments Mordent: 3 notes, main above main or main below main Turn: 4 notes, above main below main or vice versa Appoggiatura: sounds podgy, takes up 1/2 note value Acciaccatura: sounds crushed, v. quick
7 Harmonic
7.1 Plagal Cadence: sounds finished, 'amen'
7.1.1 Interrupted Cadence: not finished
7.2 Added 6th: 6th note added to normal chord, jazz music
7.3 Dominant 7th: needs to be resolved
7.4 Diminished Chord: beginning of 'I Will Survive'
7.5 Major 7th: jazzy, dreamy
7.6 Augmented Chord: not used to sound, slightly dissonant, needs to go somewhere
8 Rythmic
8.1 Irregular Metres: frequent change in time signature, accents in different places
8.2 Three Against Two: triplets vs quavers
8.3 Hemiola: classical, impression of change from duple to triple time or vice versa
8.4 Augmentation: lengthening note value, music sounds slower
8.5 Diminution: shortening note value, music seems quicker
9 Structural
9.1 Basso Continuo: Baroque bass line, cello bassoon bass etc
9.1.1 Ritornello: little return Antiphonal: sort of call and response Inversion: music is mirroredeg treble clef C E D to bass clef C B A Retrograde: goes backwards Retrograde Inversion: backwards and upside down
10 Timbre
10.1 Concertino: small group of instruments, Baroque
10.1.1 Consort: small group of instruments from the same family (eg viols), renaissance Coloratura: scales, runs and ornaments by a singer Harmonics: v. high note on string instruments Cadenza: soloists 'showing off' in a concerto with no accomp

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