The Abolitionist Campaign

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Mind Map by maura.wilson, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by maura.wilson over 5 years ago
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National 5 History Mind Map on The Abolitionist Campaign, created by maura.wilson on 04/22/2016.

Resource summary

The Abolitionist Campaign
  1. Granville Sharp was as lawyer who won the cases of escaped slaves- Jonathan Strong (1765) and James Someset (1771). Owners now had rights over the slave only if the slave had agreed in writing and they could not force a slave to return to a foreign country- Africans now had rights in Britain.
    1. Thomas Clarkson interviewed 20,000 sailors and collected equipment used on the slave- ships such as : Iron cuffs, Leg shackles, Thumbscrews , Jaw openers and Branding Irons. He spoke at public meetings and produced pamphlets and books showing the cruelty of the slave trade.
    2. William Wilberforce led the campaign in parliament. In 1787 he introduced a Bill to abolish the slave trade. It was thrown out, but in 1792 MPs agreed to abolition. However the war with France saved the slave trade. Wilberforce introduced an abolition Bill every year and in 1807 finally succeeded.
      1. All of these Abolitionists belong to the Quakers , which was created in 1783.
      2. Arguments against the Slave Trade
        1. Moral- It was immoral and against the Bible and God's will to use other human beings as slaves.
          1. The trade caused cruelty, suffering and thousands of deaths.
            1. Slaves were treated very badly during the horrific middle passage and many died.
              1. American and French revolutionaries had many writers argued all humans had a right to be free.
                1. Some opponents believed that if the slave trade stopped, all slavery would soon end.
          2. Economic- By 1807 British industry had new markets and he slave trade was not so important.
            1. Sugar from Brazil and India was cheaper than slave produced sugar from the West Indies.
              1. During the war against France, Britain gained more islands in the Caribbean and plantation owners, did not want competition from new plantations.
                1. Abolition of the slave trade gave the British navy an excuse tp stop ships from other countries and confiscate their cargoes and the ships.
                  1. The high death rate of slave led to a big fall in population on slave islands compared to areas where Africans where free.
                    1. The more ships that Britain got meant more trade for the empire
            2. Military- Napoleon's efforts to restore slavery in the french islands meant that the abolitionist campaign would help to undermine Napoleon's plans for the Caribbean.
              1. The Act banning any slave trade was intended to attack French ability to wage war.
                1. The slave trade had a negative impact on British sea power especially high death rate amongst sailors
              2. The effects of slave resistance- Successful slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue led to an exaggerated, general fear of slave revolts.
                1. There was an argument that if conditions were not eased, the abolition of the trade, further revolts would follow.
                  1. Already on Jamaica a substantial number of runaways lived outside the control of authorities. (FEAR)
                2. The religious revival- The religious revival of the late eighteenth century was at the heart of the anti-slavery movement.
                  1. Many of the early leaders particularly were Quakers.
                    1. Role of people like John Newton: Ex slave ship captain and now clergyman.
                3. In 1781 Captain Collingwood of the slave ship the Zong, threw more that 100 slaves overboard and tried to claim insurance.
                  1. The court case, which followed, was reported in newspapers and brought the slave trade into public view.
                    1. In 1787 other religious groups opposed to slavery came together to form the SOCIETY FOR THE ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE.
                      1. They set up branches all over Britain and organised the first, and one of the most successful, public campaigns in history.
                        1. The abolitionist opposed the whole idea of slavery but recognised that the government would not interfere with the property rights of slave owners and that it would cost them too muc to compensate them for loss of their slaves.
                          1. They believed that if they could persuade Parliament to abolish the trade in slaves this would eventually lead to the end of slavery and that slave owners would treat their slaves better because they would become more valuable.
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